[Analysis of students, achievement rate and contents of assessment for objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) attempted at the faculty of pharmaceutical sciences, Showa University].
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze students, achievement rate and contents of assessment judged by instructors in objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) attempted at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Showa University. The OSCE was carried out for fourth-year students in May 28, 2005. In this trial, there were two stations, i.e., counting/measurement dispensing and subsequent audit of dispensed drugs, and 218 students and 31 instructors (as evaluators) participated. We developed a checklist to test students attitudes and skills (two stages) and overall evaluation (five stages). Each student was evaluated by two instructors. Examination time was 8 minutes for drug dispensing, and 4 minutes for the audit of dispensed drug. After the OSCE trial, we analyzed validity of examination time, contents of assessment, and differences in scores between different evaluators. More than half of the students could not finish the examination within the limit of time for dispensing the liquid and cream and audit for dispensed powder. The number of items that 60% of the students achieved was 48 (82.8%). Moreover, 20% of the assessment items did not agree among the evaluators with a disagreement rate of 20% or more. Thus, we distinguished between the items based on the extent of disagreement rates. It was suggested that most of the students achieved such a level to actually perform clinical training in pharmacies. From these results, it is necessary to set up an assignment to finish the within the time limit to extent the time limit depending upon examination contents, to standardize the evaluation to increase the agreement rate among evaluators, and to more clearly identify assessment criteria.
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ABSTRACT: It is a prerequisite for community pharmacists to maintain appropriate communication with patients, but a pharmacist licensee usually must learn communication-skills after starting work as a pharmacist. However, an education system and its evaluation methods are expected to be established, since the extent of self-training and rapidity of skill acquisition may vary largely among pharmacists. Therefore in this study we developed a communication-skills education program suitable for community pharmacies, developed objective-structured clinical examination (OSCE) appraisal charts, and carried out that education and its evaluation for a period of 8 months. The appraisal charts created by us were based on items of the "patient-communication station" categorized as one of the six stations in the five areas of pharmacy OSCE. Our questionnaire for pharmacist trainees after receiving communication-skills education/evaluation resulted in responses including such comments as: the education helped to improve their communication-skills; was useful in actual patient consultations; and increased self-confidence in their work. The OSCE scores gradually increased as the trainees completed more courses in the education program. These results show that the education program, which employs an OSCE appraisal chart, leads to specific outcomes in communication skills learning.Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 02/2008; 128(1):97-110. · 0.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to assess the basic academic ability of freshmen with regard to chemistry and implement suitable educational guidance measures. At Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, basic academic ability examinations are conducted in chemistry for freshmen immediately after entrance into the college. From 2003 to 2009, the examination was conducted using the same questions, and the secular changes in the mean percentage of correct response were statistically analyzed. An experience survey was also conducted on 2007 and 2009 freshmen regarding chemical experiments at senior high school. Analysis of the basic academic ability examinations revealed a significant decrease in the mean percentage of correct responses after 2007. With regard to the answers for each question, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of correct answers for approximately 80% of questions. In particular, a marked decrease was observed for calculation questions involving percentages. A significant decrease was also observed in the number of students who had experiences with chemical experiments in high school. However, notable results have been achieved through the implementation of practice incorporating calculation problems in order to improve calculation ability. Learning of chemistry and a lack of experimental experience in high school may be contributory factors in the decrease in chemistry academic ability. In consideration of the professional ability demanded of pharmacists, the decrease in calculation ability should be regarded as a serious issue and suitable measures for improving calculation ability are urgently required.Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 08/2010; 130(8):1041-52. · 0.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), which for pharmaceutical students training, adequate methods should be used for evaluating a student's skill and aptitude for good communication in a medical interview. However, the reliability of the evaluation methods used in the pharmaceutical OSCE has not been investigated sufficiently. In this study, we reviewed the evaluation scores and video recordings obtained in a pharmaceutical OSCE trial, and examined the reasons for disagreement in the scores between two raters. We had two experienced raters in medical communication re-evaluate the students using the vide images, and compared their scores with those on the examination day. The ratio of disagreement was 14.5% (87/600 items in 30 students), and the reason for disagreement could not be identified for 63 items that evaluated communication skills such as 'actively listen' and 'empathy'. A comparison of the scores on examination day and those on re-evaluation revealed a possible reason for the disagreement; the use of a checklist, i.e. binary scores, with criteria that differed between the raters. We suggest that the items used for a detailed performance evaluation be selected carefully and that rating scales be used in order to perform an adequate evaluation, especially regarding communication skill and aptitude.Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 06/2009; 129(5):609-16. · 0.46 Impact Factor