Peptide YY containing enteroendocrine cells and peripheral tissue sensitivity to PYY and PYY(3-36) are maintained in diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rats.
ABSTRACT Peptide YY (PYY) is a gastrointestinal hormone, localized in enteroendocrine L-cells. Its hydrolyzed form PYY(3-36) is a satiety factor. The aim of this study was to identify if intestinal PYY enteroendocrine cells or content correlate with the diet-induced obese (DIO) or diet-resistant (DR) phenotypes. We also examined intestinal sensitivity to PYY and PYY(3-36) in DIO and DR rats. Animals were maintained on a medium-high fat diet and split into DIO and DR groups based on weight gain. PYY immunoreactive cells were unaltered in DIO intestine and stomach compared to DR rats. PYY content and circulating levels were also unchanged in DIO rats. Intestinal PYY and PYY(3-36) responses were enhanced in fasted rats, and equipotent in both DIO and DR jejunum. We conclude that PYY cell number, tissue content and peripheral sensitivity are maintained in DIO rats. Our data suggests that neither PYY nor PYY(3-36) contribute to the maintenance of either the DIO or DR phenotype, and that peripheral resistance to PYY and PYY(3-36) does not accompany DIO.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a chronic metabolic condition with important public health implications associated with numerous co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. The renin angiotensin system (RAS), best known for its involvement in cardiovascular control and body fluid homeostasis has, more recently, been implicated in regulation of energy balance. Interference with the RAS (genetically or pharmacologically) has been shown to influence body weight gain. In this study we investigated the effects of systemic AT1 receptor blockade using losartan on ingestive behaviors and weight gain in diet induced obese (DIO) rats. Prior to losartan administration (30 mg/kg/day) body weight gain remained constant within the DIO animals (3.6 ± 0.3 g/day, n = 8), diet resistant (DR) animals (2.1 ± 0.6 g/day, n = 8) and in the age-matched chow fed control (CHOW) animals (2.8 ± 0.3 g/day, n = 8), Losartan administration abolished body weight gain in animals fed a high fat diet (DIO: -0.4 ± 0.7 g/day, n = 8; and DR: -0.8 ± 0.3 g/day, n = 8) while chow fed animals continued to gain weight (2.2 ± 0.3 g/day, n = 8) as they had previously to oral administration of losartan. This decrease in daily body weight gain was accompanied by a decrease in food intake in the HFD fed animals. Following the removal of losartan, both the DIO and DR animals again showed daily increases in body weight gain and food intake which were similar to control values. Our data demonstrate that oral losartan administration attenuates body weight gain in animals fed a HFD whether the animal is obese (DIO) or not DR while having no effect on body weight gain in age-matched chow fed animals suggesting a protective effect of losartan against body weight gain while on a HFD.Frontiers in Psychology 07/2014; 5:832. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00832 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nutrient intake regulates intestinal epithelial mass and crypt proliferation. Recent findings in model organisms and rodents indicate nutrient restriction impacts intestinal stem cells (ISC). Little is known about the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO), a model of excess nutrient intake on ISC. We used a Sox9-EGFP reporter mouse to test the hypothesis that an adaptive response to DIO or associated hyperinsulinemia involves expansion and hyperproliferation of ISC. The Sox9-EGFP reporter mouse allows study and isolation of ISC, progenitors and differentiated lineages based on different Sox9-EGFP expression levels. Sox9-EGFP mice were fed high fat diet for 20 weeks to induce DIO and compared with littermates fed low fat rodent chow. Histology, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and mRNA analyses measured impact of DIO on jejunal crypt-villus morphometry, numbers and proliferation of different Sox9-EGFP cell populations and gene expression. An in vitro culture assay directly assessed functional capacity of isolated ISC. DIO mice exhibited significant increases in body weight, plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels and intestinal Igf1 mRNA. DIO mice had increased villus height and crypt density but decreased intestinal length and decreased numbers of Paneth and goblet cells. In vivo, DIO resulted in a selective expansion of Sox9-EGFP(Low) ISC and percentage of ISC in S-phase. ISC expansion significantly correlated with plasma insulin levels. In vitro, isolated ISC from DIO mice formed fewer enteroids in standard 3D Matrigel culture compared to controls, indicating impaired ISC function. This decreased enteroid formation in isolated ISC from DIO mice was rescued by exogenous insulin, IGF1 or both. We conclude that DIO induces specific increases in ISC and ISC hyperproliferation in vivo. However isolated ISC from DIO mice have impaired intrinsic survival and growth in vitro, which can be rescued by exogenous insulin or IGF1.Endocrinology 06/2014; 155(9):en20141112. DOI:10.1210/en.2014-1112 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diet-induced obesity is associated with changes in gastrointestinal function and induction of a mild inflammatory state. Serotonin (5-HT) containing enterochromaffin (EC) cells within the intestine respond to nutrients and are altered by inflammation. Thus, our aim was to characterize the uptake and release of 5-HT from EC cells of the rat ileum in a physiologically relevant model of diet-induced obesity. In chow-fed (CF) and Western diet-fed (WD) rats electrochemical methods were used to measure compression evoked (peak) and steady state (SS) 5-HT levels with fluoxetine used to block the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT). The levels of mRNA for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) and SERT were determined by quantitative PCR, while EC cell numbers were determined immunohistochemically. In WD rats, the levels of 5-HT were significantly increased (SS: 19.2 ± 3.7 μm; peak: 73.5 ± 14.1 μm) compared with CF rats (SS: 12.3 ± 1.8 μm; peak: 32.2 ± 7.2 μm), while SERT-dependent uptake of 5-HT was reduced (peak WD: 108% of control versus peak CF: 212% control). In WD rats, there was a significant increase in TPH1 mRNA, a decrease in SERT mRNA and protein, and an increase in EC cells. In conclusion, our data show that foods typical of a Western diet are associated with an increased 5-HT availability in the rat ileum. Increased 5-HT availability is driven by the up-regulation of 5-HT synthesis genes, decreased re-uptake of 5-HT, and increased numbers and/or 5-HT content of EC cells which are likely to cause altered intestinal motility and sensation in vivo.Endocrinology 11/2010; 152(1):36-47. DOI:10.1210/en.2010-0377 · 4.64 Impact Factor