Conserved surface features form the double-stranded RNA binding site of non-structural protein 1 (NS1) from influenza A and B viruses.
ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans and are responsible for periodic widespread epidemics with high mortality rates. The influenza A virus NS1 protein (NS1A) plays a key role in countering host antiviral defense and in virulence. The 73-residue N-terminal domain of NS1A (NS1A-(1-73)) forms a symmetric homodimer with a unique six-helical chain fold. It binds canonical A-form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Mutational inactivation of this dsRNA binding activity of NS1A highly attenuates virus replication. Here, we have characterized the unique structural features of the dsRNA binding surface of NS1A-(1-73) using NMR methods and describe the 2.1-A x-ray crystal structure of the corresponding dsRNA binding domain from human influenza B virus NS1B-(15-93). These results identify conserved dsRNA binding surfaces on both NS1A-(1-73) and NS1B-(15-93) that are very different from those indicated in earlier "working models" of the complex between dsRNA and NS1A-(1-73). The combined NMR and crystallographic data reveal highly conserved surface tracks of basic and hydrophilic residues that interact with dsRNA. These tracks are structurally complementary to the polyphosphate backbone conformation of A-form dsRNA and run at an approximately 45 degrees angle relative to the axes of helices alpha2/alpha2'. At the center of this dsRNA binding epitope, and common to NS1 proteins from influenza A and B viruses, is a deep pocket that includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. This pocket provides a target on the surface of the NS1 protein that is potentially suitable for the development of antiviral drugs targeting both influenza A and B viruses.
- SourceAvailable from: library.ibp.ac.cn[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene 15), the first ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) identified, has emerged as an important cellular antiviral factor. It consists of two UBL domains with a short linker between them. The covalent attachment of ISG15 to host and viral proteins to modify their functions, similar to ubiquitylation, is named ISGylation. Influenza B virus NS1B protein antagonizes human but not mouse ISGylation because NS1B exhibits species specificity; it only binds human and non-human primate ISG15. Previous studies have demonstrated that the N-terminal UBL domain and linker of ISG15 are required for the binding by NS1B and that the linker plays a large role in the species specificity, but the structural basis for them has not been elucidated. Here we report the crystal structure of human ISG15 in complex with NS1B at a resolution of 2.0 Å. A loop in the ISG15 N-terminal UBL domain inserts into a pocket in the NS1B dimer, forming a high affinity binding site. The nonspecific van der Waals contacts around the ISG15 linker form a low affinity site for NS1B binding. However, sequence alignment reveals that residues in the high affinity site are highly conserved in primate and non-primate ISG15. We propose that the low affinity binding around the ISG15 linker is important for the initial contact with NS1B and that the stable complex formation is largely contributed by the following high affinity interactions between ISG15 N-terminal UBL domain and NS1B. This provides a structural basis for the species-specific binding of ISG15 by the NS1B protein.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(35):30258-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) was established in 2000 by the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences with the long-term goal of providing 3D (three-dimensional) structural information for most proteins in nature. As advances in genomic sequencing, bioinformatics, homology modelling, and methods for rapid determination of 3D structures of proteins by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) converged, it was proposed that our understanding of the biology of protein structure and evolution could be greatly enabled by 'genomic-scale' protein structure determination. Over the past 12 years, the PSI has evolved from a testing bed for new methods of sample and structure production to a core component of a wide range of biology programs.F1000 Biology Reports 01/2012; 4:7.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Influenzavirus non-structural protein NS1 is involved in several steps of the virus replication cycle. It counteracts the interferon response, and also exhibits other activities towards viral and cellular RNAs. NS1 is known to bind non-specifically to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as well as to viral and cellular RNAs. We set out to search whether NS1 could preferentially bind sequence-specific RNA patterns, and performed an in vitro selection (SELEX) to isolate NS1-specific aptamers from a pool of 80-nucleotide(nt)-long RNAs. Among the 63 aptamers characterized, two families were found to harbour a sequence that is strictly conserved at the 5' terminus of all positive-strand RNAs of influenzaviruses A. We found a second virus-specific motif, a 9 nucleotide sequence located 15 nucleotides downstream from NS1's stop codon. In addition, a majority of aptamers had one or two symmetrically positioned copies of the 5'-GUAAC / 3'-CUUAG double-stranded motif, which closely resembles the canonical 5'-splice site. Through an in-depth analysis of the interaction combining fluorimetry and gel-shift assays, we showed that NS1's RNA-binding domain (RBD) specifically recognizes sequence patterns in a structure-dependent manner, resulting in an intimate interaction with high affinity (low nanomolar to subnanomolar K(D) values) that leads to oligomerization of the RBD on its RNA ligands.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2012; · 8.28 Impact Factor