Article

Brain, emotion and decision making: the paradigmatic example of regret

Neuropsychology Group, Institut des Sciences Cognitives, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 67 Boulevard Pinel, 69675 Bron, France.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences (Impact Factor: 21.15). 07/2007; 11(6):258-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2007.04.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human decisions cannot be explained solely by rational imperatives but are strongly influenced by emotion. Theoretical and behavioral studies provide a sound empirical basis to the impact of the emotion of regret in guiding choice behavior. Recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging data have stressed the fundamental role of the orbitofrontal cortex in mediating the experience of regret. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data indicate that reactivation of activity within the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala occurring during the phase of choice, when the brain is anticipating possible future consequences of decisions, characterizes the anticipation of regret. In turn, these patterns reflect learning based on cumulative emotional experience. Moreover, affective consequences can induce specific mechanisms of cognitive control of the choice processes, involving reinforcement or avoidance of the experienced behavior.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Angela Sirigu, Oct 29, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
157 Views
 · 
33 Downloads
  • Source
    • "ents in expectation - based regulation of emotions and behavior ( Mellers et al . , 1997 ; Sutton and Barto , 1998 ; Levens et al . , 2014 ) . This is generally consistent with the role of vmPFC / mOFC in the top - down modulation of emotional responses by ascribing affective meaning to the sensory information processed in the amygdaloid complex ( Coricelli et al . , 2007 ; Canessa et al . , 2009 ; Kim et al . , 2011 ; Zalla and Sperduti , 2013 ) . Taken together , these networks provide a basis for the diverse emotional and evaluative processing required during counterfactual thought ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand) provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame). Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 07/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00420 · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Based on a strong and extended survey of the existing neural researches and literature related to emotions and decision processing in the brain such as [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19], we consider that any fuzzy information, like a fuzzy alternative represented by a fuzzy triangular number, could be treated as a source of two stimuli, an aversive and an appetitive stimulus. Each one of these stimuli will lead to unconditional responses which are fear and happiness emotions respectively. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a novel solution for mobile commerce websites ranking problem in the case of uncertainty. As a case study, we will rank three m-commerce websites according to their fuzzy evaluation for seventeen fuzzy criteria. The implemented methodology is a brain-inspired one based on the emotions processing in the brain and the fuzzy sets theory.
    8th International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Apps, Services and Technologies, University of Oxford, U.K; 09/2014
  • Source
    • "Such counterfactual thinking is pervasive in everyday life, and it has been examined by philosophers and psychologists (Stalnaker, 1968; Kahneman et al., 1982; Roese, 1997; Byrne and Tasso, 1999; Roese and Olson, 2014). Counterfactual thinking helps people to learn from experience and can influence different cognitive activities such as deduction, decision making, probability calculation and problem solving (Byrne, 2002; Coricelli et al., 2007; Epstude and Roese, 2008). Moreover, counterfactual thinking is associated with complex emotions, such as guilt, regret or blame (Camille et al., 2004; Young and Koenigs, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Counterfactual thinking is thinking about a past that did not happen. This is often the case in "if only…" situations, where we wish something had or had not happened. To make a choice in a moral decision-making situation is particularly hard and, therefore, may be often associated with the imagination of a different outcome. The main aim of the present study is to investigate counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning. We used a modified version of Greene's moral dilemmas test, studying both the time needed to provide a counterfactual in the first and third person and the type of given response (in context-out of context) in a sample of 90 healthy subjects. We found a longer response time for personal vs. impersonal moral dilemmas. This effect was enhanced in the first person perspective, while in the elderly there was an overall slowing of response time. Out of context/omissive responses were more frequent in the case of personal moral dilemmas presented in the first person version, with females showing a marked increase in this kind of response. These findings suggest that gender and perspective have a critical role in counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning, and may have implications for the understanding of gender-related inclinations as well as differences in moral judgment.
    Frontiers in Psychology 05/2014; 5:451. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00451 · 2.80 Impact Factor
Show more