Article

Mishra A, Catchpole K, Dale T, et al. The influence of non-technical performance on technical outcome in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK.
Surgical Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 3.31). 02/2008; 22(1):68-73. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-007-9346-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Evidence from other professions suggests that training in teamwork and general cognitive abilities, collectively described as non-technical skills, may reduce accidents and errors. The relationship between non-technical teamwork skills and technical errors was studied using a behavioural marker system validated in aviation and adapted for use in surgery.
26 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies were observed. Simultaneous assessments were made of surgical technical errors, by observation clinical human reliability assessment (OCHRA) task analysis, and non-technical performance, using the surgical NOTECHS behavioural marker system. NOTECHS assesses four categories: (1) leadership and management, (2) teamwork cooperation, (3) problem-solving and decision-making, (4) situation awareness. Each subteam (nurses, surgeons and anaesthetists) was scored separately on each of the four dimensions. Two observers - one surgical trainee and one human factors expert - were used to assess intra-rater reliability.
The mean NOTECHS team score was 35.5 (95% C.I. +/- 1.88). The mean subteam scores for surgeons, anaesthetists and nurses were 13.3 (95% C.I. +/- 0.64), 11.4 (95% C.I. +/- 1.05), and 10.8 (95% C.I. +/- 0.87), respectively, with a significant difference between surgeons and anaesthetists (U = 197, p = 0.009), and surgeons and nurses (U = 0.134, p <or= 0.001). Inter-rater reliability was found to be strong (alpha = 0.88). There were between zero and six technical errors per operation, with a mean of 2.62 (95% C.I. +/- 0.55), which were negatively correlated with the surgeons situational awareness scores (rho = -0.718, p < 0.001).
Non-technical skills are an important component of surgical skill, particularly in relation to the development and maintenance of a surgeon's situational awareness. Experience from other industries suggests that it may be possible to improve the ability of surgeons to manage their own situation awareness, through training, intraoperative briefings and intraoperative workload management. In the future, it may be possible to use non-technical performance as a surrogate measure for technical performance, either for early identification of surgical difficulties, or as a method of evaluation by which non-surgically trained observers.

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    • "Non-technical skills are components of competencies and underlie a specific ability. The first study on Non-Technical Skills in the health-care setting was conducted in laparoscopic surgery (Mishra et al., 2008) and was drawn from other disciplines such as aviation. This study focused on the link between technical competence and reliability (behavioural characteristics) and is an index of competence. "
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    • "When using closed-loop communication, the leader makes the team members aware of important observations by asking questions about the patient’s condition. The question is addressed to one of the team members, who then has to show that he or she is paying attention by giving feedback to the leader [2]. The leader then closes the loop by confirming that the message has been correctly understood. "
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