Pneumocystis Pneumonia in HIV-positive Adults, Malawi

University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 03/2007; 13(2):325-8. DOI: 10.3201/eid1302.060462
Source: PubMed


In a prospective study of 660 HIV-positive Malawian adults, we diagnosed Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) using clinical features, induced sputum for immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR, and posttreatment follow-up. PcP incidence was highest in patients with the lowest CD4 counts, but PcP is uncommon compared with incidences of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia.

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Available from: Christopher V Plowe, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "In similar studies from Ethiopia and Uganda, PCP was the definitive diagnosis in one third of HIV-positive, PTB smear-negative patients, who underwent BAL [4,6]. In a community based Malawian study PCP was diagnosed in only 1 per 100 person years of follow-up, but strongly correlated to HIV status and increasing with declining CD4 count [18]. The differences in prevalence reported from different studies may to some extent be explained by the patients included and selection bias introduced by e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: In tuberculosis (TB) endemic parts of the world, patients with pulmonary symptoms are managed as "smear-negative TB patients" if they do not improve on a two-week presumptive, broad-spectrum course of antibiotic treatment even if they are TB microscopy smear negative. These patients are frequently HIV positive and have a higher mortality than smear-positive TB patients. Lack of access to diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia might be a contributing reason. We therefore assessed the prevalence of P. jirovecii by PCR in oral wash specimens among TB patients and healthy individuals in an HIV- and TB-endemic area of sub-Saharan Africa. A prospective study of 384 patients initiating treatment for sputum smear-positive and smear-negative TB and 100 healthy household contacts and neighbourhood controls. DNA from oral wash specimens was examined by PCR for P. jirovecii. All patients delivered sputum for TB microscopy and culture. Healthy contacts and community controls were clinically assessed and all study subjects were HIV tested and had CD4 cell counts determined. Clinical status and mortality was assessed after a follow-up period of 5 months. 384 patients and 100 controls were included, 53% and 8% HIV positive respectively. A total number of 65 patients and controls (13.6%) were at definitive risk for PCP based on CD4 counts <200 cells per mm3 and no specific PCP prophylaxis. Only a single patient (0.3% of the patients) was PCR positive for P. jirovecii. None of the healthy household contacts or neighbourhood controls had PCR-detectable P. jirovecii DNA in their oral wash specimens regardless of HIV-status. The prevalence of P. jirovecii as detected by PCR on oral wash specimens was very low among TB patients with or without HIV and healthy individuals in Tanzania. Colonisation by P. jirovecii was not detected among healthy controls. The present findings may encourage diagnostic use of this non-invasive method.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 05/2010; 10(1):140. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-10-140 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with fungal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, it is notable that these diseases have been omitted from an expanded list of neglected tropical diseases. Inextricably tied together with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa, important fungal diseases such as cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) manifest as relatively common and deadly AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, often masked by and comorbid with tuberculosis. Others, such as mycetoma, which manifest as a debilitating and deforming illness primarily affecting rural adults, directly affect the socioeconomic productivity of rural communities. Lack of adequate diagnostic tests makes identifying the true disease burden due to fungal diseases difficult. To highlight the devastating impact of fungal diseases on the health and socioeconomic circumstances of sub-Saharan Africa’s poorest people and to increase the profile of efforts to control and prevent these diseases, we propose that the following fungal diseases be added to the list of neglected tropical diseases: cryptococcal meningitis, PCP, mycetoma, histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, and blastomycosis. By outlining the prevalence, distribution, and disease burden of these fungal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa in this review, we hope to provide information to prioritize strategies for detection, control, and prevention of the neglected fungal diseases.
    Current Fungal Infection Reports 12/2011; 5(4). DOI:10.1007/s12281-011-0072-8
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    ABSTRACT: Cameroon lacks the capacity for routine Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) diagnosis, thus, the prevalence of Cameroonian exposure to this microbe is unknown. It is known that Pneumocystis infecting different mammalian host species represent diverse phylogenetic backgrounds and are now designated as separate species. The highly sensitive nature of ELISA and the specificity afforded by using human-derived P. jirovecii Msg peptides has been shown to be useful for serological analysis of human sera. Thus, sera from patients in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon, were analyzed for anti-P. jirovecii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using three recombinant major surface glycoprotein (Msg) peptide fragments, MsgA1, MsgB, and MsgC1. Based on serum recognition of one or more of the three fragments, 82% of the total samples analyzed was positive for antibodies to P. jirovecii Msg, indicating high prevalence of P. jirovecii infection or colonization among Cameroonians. Different Msg fragments appear to be recognized more frequently by sera from different geographic regions of the globe. Antibodies in the Cameroonian serum samples recognized MsgA1>MsgC1>MsgB, suggesting that different P. jirovecii strains exist in different parts of the world and/or human populations differ in their response to P. jirovecii. Also, HIV(+) patients diagnosed with respiratory infections (such as TB and pneumonia) and maintained on trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol prophylaxis had relatively lower anti-Msg titers. Whether PcP prophylaxis has significant effects on the quality of life among HIV(+) patients in Cameroon warrants further investigation.
    Acta tropica 09/2009; 112(2):219-24. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.07.030 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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