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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Humans and Animals, Central Europe

Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 7.33). 03/2007; 13(2):255-8. DOI: 10.3201/eid1302.060924
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of clonal lineage ST398 that exhibits related spa types and contains SCCmec elements of types IVa or V has been isolated from colonized and infected humans and companion animals (e.g., dog, pig, horse) in Germany and Austria. Of particular concern is the association of these cases with cases of nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonia.

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    • "pig farmers in the Netherlands and other countries (Khanna et al., 2008; Denis et al., 2009) and is known to cause infections in humans and animals (Witte et al., 2007). Such strains were also identified in cattle, and their presence in milk possess a potential risk to people working with cattle such as farm workers and veterinarians as well as milk consumers (Vanderhaeghen et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Raw milk may be contaminated by enterotoxigenic coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Several of these microorganisms show antimicrobial resistance, which poses a potential risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of CPS isolated from cow milk. A total of 115 samples were analyzed for the presence of CPS according to the International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 6888-2). The genes were identified using 2 multiplex PCR assays. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antimicrobials was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Overall, 71 samples (62%) were contaminated with CPS and 69 isolates were further analyzed. Among them, 20 (29%) strains harbored the enterotoxin genes. The most commonly detected staphylococcal enterotoxin markers were sed, sej, and ser, whereas none of the analyzed isolates possessed the seb and see genes. Almost one-half of the tested strains (43%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to penicillin was the most common, followed by sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, and streptomycin. None of the strains was positive for the mecA and mecC (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) genes. These results indicate that enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial resistant CPS strains are present in raw milk, which may be a potential risk for public health. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Dairy Science 05/2015; 98(7). DOI:10.3168/jds.2014-9064 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    • "MRSA sequence type 398 (ST398), also referred to as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), isolated from pigs and pig farmers has been reported in European countries and North America [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. MRSA ST398 is largely associated with pigs and veal calves but can colonise other host species, including cows, sheep, poultry and persons who are in frequent contact with MRSA-colonised pigs, and can cause infections in humans [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]. However, persons living in areas of high livestock density were also found to have a greater likelihood of LA-MRSA colonisation even if they lacked direct contact with animals [18] [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to being a human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus causes an array of infections in economically important livestock animals, particularly pigs. In Asia, there have been few reports on livestock-associated meticillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA), mostly from developed countries, with very few data available from resource-limited countries, not because of low prevalence but probably due to a shortage of diagnostic facilities. Unlike the wide spread of sequence type 398 (ST398) LA-MRSA in European countries and North America, ST9 predominates in most Asian countries. The prevalence of LA-MRSA among pigs in Asian countries varied widely (0.9–42.5%). The prevalence may vary by geographic location, age of pigs and sampling methodologies. Among pig farmers, the prevalence of nasal MRSA colonisation varied from 5.5% in Malaysia to 15% in China and 19.2% in Taiwan. Although most LA-MRSA isolates in Asia are of the same ST, molecular characteristics are not all the same. Dominant isolates in China were characterised as spa type t899-SCCmec III and t899-SCCmec IVb or V for isolates in Hong Kong, and t899-untypeable SCCmec for Taiwan. Dominant isolates in Malaysia were spa type t4358-SCCmec V and t337-SCCmec IX for isolates in Thailand. In addition, MRSA ST221 was reported in Japan and MRSA ST398 was isolated from commercial pigs in South Korea. Attention should be paid because pigs could become an important reservoir for MRSA and spread them to humans, as observed in many countries. There is a potential risk from the livestock reservoir to community and hospitals.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 12/2014; 45(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.12.007 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Current data indicates a low incidence of human to human transmission of this strain suggesting that the majority of infections are of a zoonotic origin (Wassenberg et al., 2011). Interestingly, it has been shown that ST398 can be either MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), both having been isolated from infections of a range of domestic animals including pigs, horses, chickens, and cows (Witte et al., 2007). Additionally, an increase in the incidence rate of clinical "
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    ABSTRACT: TwoTIR-like domain containing proteins in a newly emerging zoonotic Staphylococcus aureus strain sequence type 398 are potential virulence factors by impacting on the host innate immune response Staphylococcus aureus, sequence type (ST) 398, is an emerging pathogen and the leading cause of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections in Europe and North America. This strain is characterized by high promiscuity in terms of host-species and also lacks several traditional S. aureus virulence factors. This does not, however, explain the apparent ease with which it crosses species-barriers. Recently, TIR-domain containing proteins (Tcps) which inhibit the innate immune response were identified in some Gram-negative bacteria. Here we report the presence of two proteins, S. aureus TIR-like Protein 1 (SaTlp1) and S. aureus TIR-like Protein 2 (SaTlp2), expressed by ST398 which contain domain of unknown function 1863 (DUF1863), similar to the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. In contrast to the Tcps in Gram-negative bacteria, our data suggest that SaTlp1 and SaTlp2 increase activation of the transcription factor NF-κB as well as downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune effectors. To assess the role of both proteins as potential virulence factors knock-out mutants were created. These showed a slightly enhanced survival rate in a murine infectious model compared to the wild-type strain at one dose. Our data suggest that both proteins may act as factors contributing to the enhanced ability of ST398 to cross species-barriers.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 12/2014; 5. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00662 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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