Paracrine effects of direct intramyocardial implantation of bone marrow derived cells to enhance neovascularization in chronic ischaemic myocardium.
ABSTRACT To determine the optimal bone marrow (BM) cell types, and their potential mechanisms of action for neovascularization in chronic ischaemic myocardium.
The functional effects, angiogenic potential and cytokine expression of direct intramyocardial implantation of autologous BM CD31-positive endothelial progenitor cells (EPC, n=9), BM mononuclear cells (MNCs, n=9), and saline (n=9) were compared in a swine model of chronic ischaemic myocardium. Autologous BM cells were harvested and catheter-based electromechanical mapping-guided direct intramyocardial injection was performed to target ischaemic myocardium. After 12 weeks, injection of BM-MNC resulted in significant improvements in left ventricular dP/dt (+21+/-8%, P=0.032), left ventricular pressure (+17+/-4%, P=0.048) and regional microsphere myocardial perfusion over ischaemic endocardium (+74+/-28%, P<0.05) and epicardium (+73+/-29%, P<0.05). No significant effects were observed following injection of BM-EPC or saline. Capillary density (1132+/-69 versus 903+/-44 per mm(2), P=0.047) and expression of mRNA of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, 32.3+/-5.6 versus 13.1+/-3.7, P<0.05,) and angiopoietin-2 (23.9+/-3.6 versus 13.7+/-3.1, P<0.05) in ischaemic myocardium was significantly greater in the BM-MNC group than the saline group. The capillary density in ischaemic myocardium demonstrated a significant positive correlation with VEGF expression (r=0.61, P<0.001).
Catheter-based direct intramyocardial injection of BM-MNC enhanced angiogenesis more effectively than BM-EPC or saline, possibly via a paracrine effect, with increased expression of VEGF that subsequently improved cardiac performance of ischaemic myocardium.
Article: Relative roles of direct regeneration versus paracrine effects of human cardiosphere-derived cells transplanted into infarcted mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple biological mechanisms contribute to the efficacy of cardiac cell therapy. Most prominent among these are direct heart muscle and blood vessel regeneration from transplanted cells, as opposed to paracrine enhancement of tissue preservation and/or recruitment of endogenous repair. Human cardiac progenitor cells, cultured as cardiospheres (CSps) or as CSp-derived cells (CDCs), have been shown to be capable of direct cardiac regeneration in vivo. Here we characterized paracrine effects in CDC transplantation and investigated their relative importance versus direct differentiation of surviving transplanted cells. In vitro, many growth factors were found in media conditioned by human adult CSps and CDCs; CDC-conditioned media exerted antiapoptotic effects on neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and proangiogenic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo, human CDCs secreted vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor 1 when transplanted into the same SCID mouse model of acute myocardial infarction where they were previously shown to improve function and to produce tissue regeneration. Injection of CDCs in the peri-infarct zone increased the expression of Akt, decreased apoptotic rate and caspase 3 level, and increased capillary density, indicating overall higher tissue resilience. Based on the number of human-specific cells relative to overall increases in capillary density and myocardial viability, direct differentiation quantitatively accounted for 20% to 50% of the observed effects. Together with their spontaneous commitment to cardiac and angiogenic differentiation, transplanted CDCs serve as "role models," recruiting endogenous regeneration and improving tissue resistance to ischemic stress. The contribution of the role model effect rivals or exceeds that of direct regeneration.Circulation Research 03/2010; 106(5):971-80. · 9.49 Impact Factor
Article: Therapeutic angiogenesis by transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived Flk-1 positive cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are the novel stem cell population induced from somatic cells. It is anticipated that iPS will be used in the expanding field of regenerative medicine. Here, we investigated whether implantation of fetal liver kinase-1 positive (Flk-1+) cells derived from iPS cells could improve angiogenesis in a mouse hind limb model of ischemia. Flk-1+ cells were induced from iPS cells after four to five days of culture. Hind limb ischemia was surgically induced and sorted Flk-1+ cells were directly injected into ischemic hind limbs of athymic nude mice. Revascularization of the ischemic hind limb was accelerated in mice that were transplanted with Flk-1+ cells compared with control mice, which were transplanted with vehicle, as evaluated by laser Doppler blood flowmetry. Transplantation of Flk-1+ cells also increased expression of VEGF mRNA in ischemic tissue compared to controls. Direct local implantation of iPS cell-derived Flk-1+ cells would salvage tissues from ischemia. These data indicate that iPS cells could be valuable in the therapeutic induction of angiogenesis.BMC Cell Biology 01/2010; 11:72. · 2.59 Impact Factor
Article: Stromal vascular fraction transplantation as an alternative therapy for ischemic heart failure: anti-inflammatory role.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were: (1) to show the feasibility of using adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) as an alternative to bone marrow mono nuclear cell (BM-MNC) for cell transplantation into chronic ischemic myocardium; and (2) to explore underlying mechanisms with focus on anti-inflammation role of engrafted SVF and BM-MNC post chronic myocardial infarction (MI) against left ventricular (LV) remodelling and cardiac dysfunction. Four weeks after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, 32 Male Lewis rats with moderate MI were divided into 3 groups. SVF group (n = 12) had SVF cell transplantation (6 × 10(6) cells). BM-MNC group (n = 12) received BM-MNCs (6 × 10(6)) and the control (n = 10) had culture medium. At 4 weeks, after the final echocardiography, histological sections were stained with Styrus red and immunohistochemical staining was performed for α-smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, CD3, CD8 and CD20. At 4 weeks, in SVF and BM-MNC groups, LV diastolic dimension and LV systolic dimension were smaller and fractional shortening was increased in echocardiography, compared to control group. Histology revealed highest vascular density, CD3+ and CD20+ cells in SVF transplanted group. SVF transplantation decreased myocardial mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-1, TIMP-1 and inhibited collagen deposition. Transplantation of adipose derived SVF cells might be a useful therapeutic option for angiogenesis in chronic ischemic heart disease. Anti-inflammation role for SVF and BM transplantation might partly benefit for the cardioprotective effect for chronic ischemic myocardium.Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 03/2011; 6:43. · 1.19 Impact Factor