Article

Sensitization and activation of intracranial meningeal nociceptors by mast cell mediators

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.86). 09/2007; 322(2):806-12. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.107.123745
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Intracranial headaches such as migraine are thought to result from activation of sensory trigeminal pain neurons that supply intracranial blood vessels and the meninges, also known as meningeal nociceptors. Although the mechanism underlying the triggering of such activation is not completely understood, our previous work indicates that the local activation of the inflammatory dural mast cells can provoke a persistent sensitization of meningeal nociceptors. Given the potential importance of mast cells to the pain of migraine it is important to understand which mast cell-derived mediators interact with meningeal nociceptors to promote their activation and sensitization. In the present study, we have used in vivo electrophysiological single-unit recording of meningeal nociceptors in the trigeminal ganglion of anesthetized rats to examine the effect of a number of mast cell mediators on the activity level and mechanosensitivity of meningeal nociceptors. We have found that that serotonin (5-HT), prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)), and to a lesser extent histamine can promote a robust sensitization and activation of meningeal nociceptors, whereas the inflammatory eicosanoids PGD(2) and leukotriene C(4) are largely ineffective. We propose that dural mast cells could promote headache by releasing 5-HT, PGI(2), and histamine.

0 Followers
 · 
87 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Migraine is a common multifactorial episodic brain disorder with strong genetic basis. Monogenic subtypes include rare familial hemiplegic migraine, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome (FASPS), and retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy. Functional studies of disease-causing mutations in cellular and/or transgenic models revealed enhanced (glutamatergic) neurotransmission and abnormal vascular function as key migraine mechanisms. Common forms of migraine (both with and without an aura), instead, are thought to have a polygenic makeup. Genome-wide association studies have already identified over a dozen genes involved in neuronal and vascular mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of molecular genetic research in migraine, also with respect to functional and pathway analyses. We will also discuss how novel experimental approaches for the identification and functional characterization of migraine genes, such as next-generation sequencing, induced pluripotent stem cell, and optogenetic technologies will further our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in migraine pathogenesis.
    Pain 04/2015; 156 Suppl 1:S64-74. DOI:10.1097/01.j.pain.0000460346.00213.16 · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Migraine is the most common neurological disorder. Attacks are complex and consist of multiple phases but are most commonly characterized by intense, unilateral, throbbing headache. The pathophysiology contributing to migraine is poorly understood and the disorder is not well managed with currently available therapeutics, often rendering patients disabled during attacks. The mechanisms most likely to contribute to the pain phase of migraine require activation of trigeminal afferent signaling from the cranial meninges and subsequent relay of nociceptive information into the central nervous system in a region of the dorsal brainstem known as the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Events leading to activation of meningeal afferents are unclear, but nerve endings within this tissue are mechanosensitive and also express a variety of ion channels including acid-sensing ion channels and transient receptor-potential channels. These properties may provide clues into the pathophysiology of migraine by suggesting that decreased extracellular pH and environmental irritant exposure in the meninges contributes to headache. Neuroplasticity is also likely to play a role in migraine given that attacks are triggered by routine events that are typically nonnoxious in healthy patients and clear evidence of sensitization occurs during an attack. Where and how plasticity develops is also not clear but may include events directly on the afferents and/or within the TNC. Among the mediators potentially contributing to plasticity, calcitonin gene-related peptide has received the most attention within the migraine field but other mechanisms may also contribute. Ultimately, greater understanding of the molecules and mechanisms contributing to migraine will undoubtedly lead to better therapeutics and relief for the large number of patients across the globe who suffer from this highly disabling neurological disorder. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Progress in molecular biology and translational science 01/2015; 131:537-64. DOI:10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.01.001 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Source

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from