Determination of ethambutol MICs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium isolates by resazurin microtitre assay.
ABSTRACT To test susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates to ethambutol by the Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) proportion method and resazurin microtitre assay (REMA) and to evaluate REMA for the determination of ethambutol MICs for MTB and Mycobacterium avium isolates.
A total of 50 MTB and 20 M. avium isolates were tested to determine the MICs of ethambutol by REMA and agar dilution method. MTB isolates were also tested by the LJ proportion method.
REMA provided ethambutol susceptibility results for all the isolates within 8-9 days. For MTB isolates, REMA showed 96.7% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity and 98.0% accuracy when LJ proportion results were taken as 'gold standard'. For both MTB and M. avium isolates, the MICs determined by REMA were lower than those determined in agar medium, indicating that MIC values determined by REMA are closer to the actual MICs for the isolates.
REMA can be used as a rapid and inexpensive method for mycobacterial drug susceptibility testing against ethambutol. In comparison with the agar method, the MICs determined by REMA can more accurately be correlated with achievable plasma concentrations of antimycobacterial agents.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Vishnu dutt Sharma, Jun 26, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Kanamycin (KM) and amikacin (AK) are the key aminoglycoside drugs against tuberculosis (TB) and resistance to them severely affects the options for treatment. Many explanations have been proposed for drug resistance to these drugs but still some mechanisms are unknown. Proteins are the functional moiety of the cell and manifest most of the biological processes; so, these are potential foci for the development of new therapeutics, diagnostics and vaccine. We examined the KM and AK resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using proteomic analysis comprising of two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and bioinformatic tools like BLASTP, InterProScan, KEGG motif scan and molecular docking. Proteins intensities of twelve spots were found to be consistently increased in KM and AK resistant isolates and these were identified as Rv3867, Rv1932, Rv3418c, Rv1876, Rv2031c, Rv0155, Rv0643c, Rv3224, Rv0952, and Rv0440. Among these Rv3867 and Rv3224 were identified as proteins with unknown function. All the proteins identified were cellular proteins. Molecular docking shows the proper interaction of both drugs with these molecules. Also, Rv1876 and Rv3224 were found to be probably involved in iron regulation/metabolism indicating the role of iron in imparting resistance to second line drugs. The study carried out shows that two dimensional electrophoresis along with mass spectrometry is still the best approach for proteomic analysis. To the best of our knowledge it is the first ever report on proteomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to second line drugs (Kanamycin and amikacin). The major finding implicates that the genes/proteins involved in iron metabolism and the two hypothetical proteins (Rv3867 and Rv3224) might be playing some crucial role in contributing resistance to second line drugs. Further exploitation in this direction may lead to the development of newer therapeutics against tuberculosis.Journal of proteomics 09/2013; 94. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2013.08.025 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed the performance of REMA in comparison with BACTEC MGIT 960 in the susceptibility testing of 80 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Clemente Ferreira Institute against four drugs. REMA proved to be a rapid and accurate method, providing excellent correlation with BACTEC MGIT 960, with the exception of results for the ethambutol drug.Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 01/2013; 44(1):281-5. DOI:10.1590/S1517-83822013005000028 · 0.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recommended for guiding the antimicrobial therapy. We have evaluated the use of resazurin in Mueller-Hinton medium (MHR) for MIC determination of RGM and compared the results with those obtained with the reference standard broth microdilution in Mueller-Hinton (MH) and with the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) in 7H9 broth. The MIC of eight drugs: amikacin (AMI), cefoxitin (FOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clarithromycin (CLA), doxycycline (DOX), linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MXF) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were evaluated against 76 RGM (18 species) using three methods (MH, MHR, and REMA) in a 96-well plate format incubated at 37 °C over 3-5 days. Results obtained in the MH plates were interpreted by the appearance of turbidity at the bottom of the well before adding the resazurin. MHR and 7H9-REMA plates were read by visual observation for a change in color from blue to pink. The majority of results were obtained at day 5 for MH and 1 day after for MHR and 7H9-REMA. However, the preliminary experiment on time to positivity results using the reference strain showed that the resazurin can be added to the MH at day 2 to produce the results at day 3, but future studies with large sets of strains are required to confirm this suggestion. A high level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.884) was obtained between the MH and the MHR. Comparison of results obtained with 7H9-REMA, on the other hand, revealed several discrepancies and a lower level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.111). The majority of the strains were resistant to DOX and TMP-SMX, and the most active antimicrobials for RGM were AMI and FOX. In the present study, MHR represented an excellent alternative for MIC determination of RGM. The results could be read reliably, more easily, and more quickly than with the classical MH method.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10096-015-2365-2 · 2.54 Impact Factor