Effects of Applephenon and ascorbic acid on physical fatigue.
ABSTRACT We examined the effects of Applephenon and ascorbic acid administration on physical fatigue.
In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover design, 18 healthy volunteers were randomized to oral Applephenon (1200 mg/d), ascorbic acid (1000 mg/d), or placebo for 8 d. The fatigue-inducing physical task consisted of workload trials on a bicycle ergometer at fixed workloads for 2 h on two occasions. During the test, subjects performed non-workload trials with maximum velocity for 10 s at 30 min (30-min trial) after the start of the test and 30 min before the end of the test (210-min trial).
The change in maximum velocity between the 30- and 210-min trials was higher in the group given Applephenon than in the group given placebo; ascorbic acid had no effect.
These results suggest that Applephenon attenuates physical fatigue, whereas ascorbic acid does not.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA2G) is a stable glycoside, but its conversion to bioavailable ascorbic acid (AsA) in humans remains unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify that AA2G is hydrolyzed by human intestinal maltase and AA2G by oral ingestion is physiologically utilized the same as AsA in human subjects. The hydrolyzing activities to AA2G by human or rat intestinal homogenates were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a human experiment eight healthy female subjects (23.5 +/- 0.5 y old, body mass index 20.1 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)) ingested 3.84 g of AA2G (equivalent to 2 g of AsA) and 2 g of AsA. Blood was collected 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after ingestion. The concentrations of serum AsA were compared with those of rats administered 76.8 mg of AA2G (equivalent to 40 mg of AsA). AA2G was hydrolyzed by maltase using human intestinal homogenate the same as that of rat. When AA2G was orally administered to human subjects, the changed value of the serum concentration of AsA was 1.6 mg/100 mL from baseline at 2 h and then maintained until 4 h after administration. These concentrations were not significantly different from those after ingestion of AsA. In the case of rat, the AsA concentrations in serum were linearly increased to 1.7 mg/100 mL until 3 h after administration. AA2G is hydrolyzed by intestinal maltase and acts as AsA in humans. The present results will contribute to the development of functional food with health claims to supply AsA.Nutrition 03/2009; 25(6):686-91. · 2.86 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Impaired energy metabolism is considered a possible cause of fatigue. The thiamine derivative, thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD), is prescribed and is also an over-the-counter drug for the attenuation of fatigue. It is readily absorbed from the intestinal tract and converted into thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), which plays an important role as a cofactor for enzymes of metabolic pathways involved in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). We postulated that TTFD has an anti-fatigue effect by improving energy metabolism during physical-fatigue loading. Here, we initially used the forced swimming test to determine whether daily TTFD or thiamine for 5 days has anti-fatigue effects on weight-loaded rats. The swimming duration of TTFD-, but not of thiamine-treated rats, was significantly longer than that of control rats (P < .05). Based on these findings, we examined changes in the levels of thiamine and its phosphate esters in various organs and the effect of TTFD on ATP levels in skeletal muscle after forced swimming, to determine the cellular mechanisms of the anti-fatigue effect of TTFD. Daily TTFD resulted in a characteristic distribution of thiamine and its phosphate esters in rat skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, heart, brain, and plasma. Furthermore, daily TTFD attenuated the decrease in ATP content in the skeletal muscle caused by forced swimming with a weight load for a defined period (150 s). These results indicate that TTFD exerts anti-fatigue effects by improving energy metabolism during physical fatigue.Nutrition research 12/2009; 29(12):867-72. · 2.59 Impact Factor
- Japanese Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2009; 6(2):69-74.