Effects of Applephenon and ascorbic acid on physical fatigue.
ABSTRACT We examined the effects of Applephenon and ascorbic acid administration on physical fatigue.
In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover design, 18 healthy volunteers were randomized to oral Applephenon (1200 mg/d), ascorbic acid (1000 mg/d), or placebo for 8 d. The fatigue-inducing physical task consisted of workload trials on a bicycle ergometer at fixed workloads for 2 h on two occasions. During the test, subjects performed non-workload trials with maximum velocity for 10 s at 30 min (30-min trial) after the start of the test and 30 min before the end of the test (210-min trial).
The change in maximum velocity between the 30- and 210-min trials was higher in the group given Applephenon than in the group given placebo; ascorbic acid had no effect.
These results suggest that Applephenon attenuates physical fatigue, whereas ascorbic acid does not.
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ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of L-ornithine administration on physical fatigue. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover study, 17 healthy volunteers were randomized to L-ornithine (2000 mg/d for 7 days and 6000 mg/d for 1 day as L-ornithine hydrochloride) or placebo for 8 days. The fatigue-inducing physical task consisted of workload trials on a cycle ergometer at fixed workloads for 2 hours on 2 occasions. We found that oral L-ornithine administration promoted lipid metabolism and activated the urea cycle from serum triacylglycerol, ketone bodies, free fatty acids, and blood ammonia level changing. L-ornithine significantly attenuated the subjective feeling of fatigue (measured by visual analog scale at postrecovery) compared with postload (P < .01). Moreover, in female subjects, the subjective feeling of fatigue was significantly lower compared with the placebo group (P < .05). In the physical performance test in female subjects, the decrease in mean speed for 10 seconds maximum pedaling from 0.5- to 3.5-hour trials in the group receiving L-ornithine was smaller than that in the group receiving placebo (P < .05). These results suggest that L-ornithine has an antifatigue effect by increasing the efficiency of energy consumption and promoting the excretion of ammonia. L-ornithine is a free amino acid and is not rich in meats or fish, so it is difficult to obtain amounts of L-ornithine from ordinary meals that would be sufficient to promote the antifatigue effect. We recommend L-ornithine intake as a nutritional supplement in cases of physical fatigue.Nutrition research 11/2008; 28(11):738-43. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2008.08.008 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polyphenolic phytochemicals are ubiquitous in plants, in which they function in various protective roles. A 'recommended' human diet contains significant quantities of polyphenolics, as they have long been assumed to be 'antioxidants' that scavenge excessive, damaging, free radicals arising from normal metabolic processes. There is recent evidence that polyphenolics also have 'indirect' antioxidant effects through induction of endogenous protective enzymes. There is also increasing evidence for many potential benefits through polyphenolic-mediated regulation of cellular processes such as inflammation. Inductive or signalling effects may occur at concentrations much lower than required for effective radical scavenging. Over the last 2-3 years, there have been many exciting new developments in the elucidation of the in vivo mechanisms of the health benefits of polyphenolics. We summarise the current knowledge of the intake, bio-availability and metabolism of polyphenolics, their antioxidant effects, regulatory effects on signalling pathways, neuro-protective effects and regulatory effects on energy metabolism and gut health.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 12/2007; 64(22):2900-16. DOI:10.1007/s00018-007-7237-1 · 5.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of citric acid and l-carnitine administration on physical fatigue. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study, 18 healthy volunteers were randomized to oral citric acid (2,700 mg/day), l-carnitine (1,000 mg/day), or placebo for 8 days. The fatigue-inducing physical task consisted of workload trials on a cycle ergometer at fixed workloads for 2 h on 2 occasions. Before the physical load, salivary chromogranin A, measured as a physiological stress marker, was lower in the group given citric acid than in the group given placebo. Also, after the physical load, the subjective feeling of fatigue assessed with a visual analogue scale was lower in the citric acid group than in the placebo group. In contrast, l-carnitine had no effect on chromogranin A or subjective fatigue. These results suggest that citric acid reduces physiological stress and attenuates physical fatigue, whereas l-carnitine does not.Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 12/2007; 41(3):224-30. DOI:10.3164/jcbn.2007032 · 2.29 Impact Factor