Determinants of monovalent oral polio vaccine mutagenesis in vaccinated elderly people.
ABSTRACT Live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strains can mutate and recombine during replication in the host. Trivalent OPV has long been used to restrain wild-type poliovirus in developing countries. However, recently WHO advocates using monovalent OPV (mOPV) to finally eradicate poliovirus world-wide. We analysed polioviruses recovered from the faeces of 101 elderly patients (divided into three groups by immune status) challenged with mOPV-1 or mOPV-3. A high number of nucleotide mutations was found in the viral capsid-protein-encoding regions. Some of these mutations caused amino acid changes in or near regions with neutralizing epitopes, especially in mOPV-1-derived strains. The quantities of mutations in recovered poliovirus strains correlated with prevaccination immune status (seronegatives have more mutations) and excretion duration. Duration of excretion appears to be the dominant factor for the accumulation of mutations in mOPV-derived strains in vaccinated elderly people.
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ABSTRACT: To identify determinants of attenuation in the poliovirus type 1 Sabin vaccine strain, a series of recombinant viruses were constructed by using infectious cDNA clones of the virulent type 1 poliovirus P1/Mahoney and the attenuated type 1 vaccine strain P1/Sabin. Intracerebral inoculation of these viruses into transgenic mice which express the human receptor for poliovirus identified regions of the genome that conferred reduced neurovirulence. Exchange of smaller restriction fragments and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify the nucleotide changes responsible for attenuation. P1/Sabin mutations at nucleotides 935 of VP4, 2438 of VP3, and 2795 and 2879 of VP1 were all shown to be determinants of attenuation. The recombinant viruses and site-directed mutants were also used to identify the nucleotide changes which are involved in the temperature sensitivity of P1/Sabin. Determinants of this phenotype in HeLa cells were mapped to changes at nucleotides 935 of VP4, 2438 of VP3, and 2741 of VP1. The 3Dpol gene of P1/Sabin, which contains three amino acid differences from its parent P1/Mahoney, also contributes to the temperature sensitivity of P1/Sabin; however, mutants containing individual amino acid changes grew as well as P1/Mahoney at elevated temperatures, suggesting that either some combination or all three changes are required for temperature sensitivity. In addition, the 3'-noncoding region of P1/Sabin augments the temperature-sensitive phenotype conferred by 3Dpol. Although nucleotide 2741, 3Dpol, and the 3'-noncoding region of P1/Sabin contribute to the temperature sensitivity of P1/Sabin, they do not contribute to attenuation in transgenic mice expressing the poliovirus receptor, demonstrating that determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity can be genetically separated.Journal of Virology 09/1995; 69(8):4972-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
- Nature 05/2005; 434(7034):699-700. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is believed to induce significantly lower mucosal immunity than oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Most of the data supporting this were generated before enhanced IPV (eIPV) was introduced. Excretion of poliovirus by OPV recipients can be used to assess intestinal immunity. We studied polymerase chain reaction amplification of viral complementary DNA from the stool of children vaccinated with either OPV alone or eIPV. Of first-time OPV recipients, 92% excreted virus after 1 week, and 81% excreted virus after 3 weeks. Prior vaccination with OPV reduced the number to 22% and shortened the duration of virus excretion (to 5% after 3 weeks). Two doses of IPV reduced the number of poliovirus-positive 1-week samples (to 76%), the duration of shedding (to 37% at 3 weeks), and the quantity of excreted virus. This suggests that IPV-vaccinated communities are partially protected from the spread of poliovirus. Further enhancement of IPV potency may lead to even higher levels of mucosal immunity.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2006; 192(12):2092-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor