Determinants of monovalent oral polio vaccine mutagenesis in vaccinated elderly people.
ABSTRACT Live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strains can mutate and recombine during replication in the host. Trivalent OPV has long been used to restrain wild-type poliovirus in developing countries. However, recently WHO advocates using monovalent OPV (mOPV) to finally eradicate poliovirus world-wide. We analysed polioviruses recovered from the faeces of 101 elderly patients (divided into three groups by immune status) challenged with mOPV-1 or mOPV-3. A high number of nucleotide mutations was found in the viral capsid-protein-encoding regions. Some of these mutations caused amino acid changes in or near regions with neutralizing epitopes, especially in mOPV-1-derived strains. The quantities of mutations in recovered poliovirus strains correlated with prevaccination immune status (seronegatives have more mutations) and excretion duration. Duration of excretion appears to be the dominant factor for the accumulation of mutations in mOPV-derived strains in vaccinated elderly people.
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ABSTRACT: From 2001 to 2004, Switzerland switched from routine vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV) to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), using both vaccines in the intervening period. Since IPV is less effective at inducing mucosal immunity than OPV, this change might allow imported poliovirus to circulate undetected more easily in an increasingly IPV-immunized population. Environmental monitoring is a recognized tool for identifying polioviruses in a community. To look for evidence of poliovirus circulation following cessation of OPV use, two sewage treatment plants located in the Zurich area were sampled from 2004 to 2006. Following virus isolation using either RD or L20B cells, enteroviruses and polioviruses were identified by reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 20 out of 174 wastewater samples were positive for 62 Sabin-like isolates. One isolate from each poliovirus-positive sample was analyzed in more detail. Sequencing the complete viral protein 1 (VP1) capsid coding region, as well as intratypic differentiation (ITD), identified 3 Sabin type 1, 13 Sabin type 2, and 4 Sabin type 3 strains. One serotype 1 strain showed a discordant result in the ITD. Three-quarters of the strains showed mutations within the 5' untranslated region and VP1, known to be associated with reversion to virulence. Moreover, three strains showed heterotypic recombination (S2/S1 and S3/S2/S3). The low number of synonymous mutations and the partial temperature sensitivity are not consistent with extended circulation of these Sabin virus strains. Nevertheless, the continuous introduction of polioviruses into the community emphasizes the necessity for uninterrupted child vaccination to maintain high herd immunity.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 09/2008; 74(18):5608-14. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have indicated that at least 10% of the Dutch elderly do not have poliovirus serotype-specific neutralizing antibody titers and might be at risk for poliovirus infection. Previously we established that memory immunity does not protect the elderly against poliovirus replication. In this study, we investigated whether preexisting immunoglobulin (Ig) A protects against poliovirus infection. Elderly individuals (n = 383), divided into seronegative and seropositive groups, were challenged with monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV), either serotype 1 or serotype 3. After challenge, poliovirus serotype-specific circulating and salivary IgA responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and poliovirus excretion in stool was measured. The majority of elderly persons without preexisting IgA excreted poliovirus in the stool. In contrast, most elderly persons seropositive for IgA did not excrete poliovirus. Significant inverse correlations were found between preexisting titers of poliovirus serotype-specific circulating IgA and virus excretion. Challenge with mOPV (re)induced IgA responses; low salivary IgA responses correlated with that in the circulation but not with virus excretion. These results indicate that preexisting IgA values in the circulation correlate with protection against poliovirus infection in the elderly. This further implies that persons without preexisting IgA might contribute to the circulation of poliovirus and therefore may threaten its eradication.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2008; 197(5):698-706. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fracture toughness of three crystalline Calcite marbles, which are different only in grain size and distribution, is determined under modes I and II and mixed mode I–II loading conditions using Cracked Chevron-Notched Brazilian Disc (CCNBD) and Hollow Centre Cracked Disc (HCCD) specimens. The results show that mode I fracture toughness (KIC) is correlated negatively with grain size. For each marble, HCCD yields lower values of fracture toughness, compared with CCNBD. This difference is negligible under mode I loading condition; while it becomes larger as loading condition transits from mode I to mode II. Measured values of P-wave velocity (VP), Brazilian tensile strength (σtB) and Schmidt hammer hardness are in direct relation with KIC of the marbles. The obtained results are compared with three fracture criteria, in which the Minimum Strain Energy Density (MSED) criterion has provided better correlations with different critical combinations of modes I and II Stress Intensity Factors.International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences - INT J ROCK MECH MINING SCI. 01/2011; 48(7):1123-1134.