Article

Development of intuitive rules: evaluating the application of the dual-system framework to understanding children's intuitive reasoning.

Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (Impact Factor: 2.99). 01/2007; 13(6):935-53. DOI: 10.3758/BF03213907
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Theories of adult reasoning propose that reasoning consists of two functionally distinct systems that operate under entirely different mechanisms. This theoretical framework has been used to account for a wide range of phenomena, which now encompasses developmental research on reasoning and problem solving. We begin this review by contrasting three main dual-system theories of adult reasoning (Evans & Over, 1996; Sloman, 1996; Stanovich & West, 2000) with a well-established developmental account that also incorporates a dual-system framework (Brainerd & Reyna, 2001). We use developmental studies of the formation and application of intuitive rules in science and mathematics to evaluate the claims that these theories make. Overall, the evidence reviewed suggests that what is crucial to understanding how children reason is the saliency of the features that are presented within a task. By highlighting the importance of saliency as a way of understanding reasoning, we aim to provide clarity concerning the benefits and limitations of adopting a dual-system framework to account for evidence from developmental studies of intuitive reasoning.

2 Followers
 · 
112 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.
    Memory & Cognition 03/2015; DOI:10.3758/s13421-015-0513-7 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The equiprobability bias (EB) is a tendency to believe that every process in which randomness is involved corresponds to a fair distribution, with equal probabilities for any possible outcome. The EB is known to affect both children and adults, and to increase with probability education. Because it results in probability errors resistant to pedagogical interventions, it has been described as a deep misconception about randomness: the erroneous belief that randomness implies uniformity. In the present paper, we show that the EB is actually not the result of a conceptual error about the definition of randomness. On the contrary, the mathematical theory of randomness does imply uniformity. However, the EB is still a bias, because people tend to assume uniformity even in the case of events that are not random. The pervasiveness of the EB reveals a paradox: The combination of random processes is not necessarily random. The link between the EB and this paradox is discussed, and suggestions are made regarding educational design to overcome difficulties encountered by students as a consequence of the EB.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dual-process theories propose two types of cognitive process – Type 1 heuristic processing and Type 2 analytic processing – that underlie belief biased reasoning. Previous studies have shown neural correlates of these types of processing, but the effect of logical training on neural activation in belief bias remains unclear. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the brain activity associated with response change in a belief bias paradigm before and after logic training. Participants completed two sets of belief biased reasoning tasks. In the first set they were instructed to respond based on their empirical beliefs, and in the second – following logic training – they were instructed to respond logically. The comparison between conflict problems in the second scan versus in the first scan revealed differing activation for the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, cerebellum, and precuneus. The scan was time locked to the presentation of the minor premise, and thus demonstrated effects of belief–logic conflict on neural activation earlier in the time course than has previously been shown in fMRI. These data, moreover, indicated that logical training results in changes in brain activity associated with cognitive control processing which is a form of Type 2 processing. It is argued that this evidence favors a dual-process theory of belief-bias rather than a single process account.
    Biological Psychology 12/2014; 103:276-282. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.09.010 · 3.47 Impact Factor

Full-text (4 Sources)

Download
44 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014