Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir.
ABSTRACT Telaprevir (VX-950), a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3.4A protease inhibitor, has shown strong antiviral activity in phase 1 clinical studies. Because of high levels of HCV replication and the low fidelity of HCV polymerase, selection of resistant isolates during therapy may occur.
A highly sensitive sequencing method was developed in which approximately 80 clones/sample were analyzed to identify mutations in the NS3 protease catalytic domain in HCV genotype-1-infected patients dosed with 450 mg every 8 hours, 750 mg every 8 hours, or 1250 mg every 12 hours of telaprevir for 14 days.
Mutations that confer low-level resistance (V36A/M, T54A, R155K/T, and A156S) and high-level resistance (A156V/T, 36+155, 36+156) to telaprevir were detected and correlated with telaprevir exposure and virologic response. Changes in the frequency of mutations after the end of dosing showed an inverse relationship between in vivo viral fitness and resistance. In the absence of telaprevir selective pressure the majority of resistant variants were replaced by wild-type virus within 3-7 months.
Resistant HCV isolates are selected rapidly during therapy with the highly active protease inhibitor telaprevir. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alfa or other direct antiviral drugs seem mandatory to avoid developing resistance.
Article: Lucidone suppresses hepatitis C virus replication by Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 induction.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Upon screening of plant-derived natural products against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the replicon system, we demonstrated that lucidone, a phytocompound, isolated from the fruits of Lindera erythrocarpa Makino, significantly suppressed HCV RNA levels with an EC(50) value of 15 ± 0.5 μM and 20 ± 1.1 μM in HCV replicon and JFH-1 infectious assays, respectively. There was no significant cytotoxicity observed at high concentrations, with a CC(50) value of 620 ± 5 μM. In addition, lucidone significantly induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) production and led to the increase of its product biliverdin for inducing anti-viral interferon response and inhibiting HCV NS3/4A protease activity. Conversely, the anti-HCV activity of lucidone was abrogated by blocking HO-1 activity or silencing gene expression of HO-1 or NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the presence of lucidone, indicating that the anti-HCV action of lucidone was due to the stimulation of Nrf-2-mediated HO-1 expression. Moreover, the combination of lucidone and interferon-α, the protease inhibitor telaprevir, the NS5A inhibitor BMS-790052, or the NS5B polymerase inhibitor PSI-7977, synergistically suppressed HCV RNA replication. These findings suggest that lucidone could be a potential lead or supplement for development of new anti-HCV agent in the future.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2012; · 4.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide cause of liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is estimated that more than 170 million individuals are infected with HCV, with three to four million new cases each year. The current standard of care, combination treatment with interferon and ribavirin, eradicates the virus in only about 50% of chronically infected patients. Notably, neither of these drugs directly target HCV. Many new antiviral therapies that specifically target hepatitis C (e.g. NS3 protease or NS5B polymerase inhibitors) are therefore in development, with a significant number having advanced into clinical trials. The nonstructural 4B (NS4B) protein, is among the least characterized of the HCV structural and nonstructural proteins and has been subjected to few pharmacological studies. NS4B is an integral membrane protein with at least four predicted transmembrane (TM) domains. A variety of functions have been postulated for NS4B, such as the ability to induce the membranous web replication platform, RNA binding and NTPase activity. This review summarizes potential targets within the nonstructural protein NS4B, with a focus on novel classes of NS4B inhibitors.Viruses 11/2010; 2(11):2481-92. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most prevalent deadly chronic viral diseases. HIV is treated by small molecule inhibitors. HBV is treated by immunomodulation and small molecule inhibitors. HCV is currently treated primarily by immunomodulation but many small molecules are in clinical development. Although HIV is a retrovirus, HBV is a double-stranded DNA virus, and HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus, antiviral drug resistance complicates the development of drugs and the successful treatment of each of these viruses. Although their replication cycles, therapeutic targets, and evolutionary mechanisms are different, the fundamental approaches to identifying and characterizing HIV, HBV, and HCV drug resistance are similar. This review describes the evolution of HIV, HBV, and HCV within individuals and populations and the genetic mechanisms associated with drug resistance to each of the antiviral drug classes used for their treatment.Viruses 12/2010; 2(12):2696-739. · 1.50 Impact Factor