Iron overload syndromes and the liver.

Pathology Lab, Division of Gastrointestinal Pathology, Minnesota Gastroenterology, Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.36). 03/2007; 20 Suppl 1:S31-9. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.3800715
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Iron can accumulate in the liver in a variety of conditions, including congenital, systemic iron-loading conditions (hereditary hemochromatosis), conditions associated with systemic macrophage iron accumulation (transfusions, hemolytic conditions, anemia of chronic disease, etc), in some hepatitidies (hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease, porphyria cutanea tarda), and liver-specific iron accumulation of uncertain pathogenesis in cirrhosis. The anatomic pathologist will be faced with the task of determining whether iron accumulation in the liver is significant and, if so, the nature of the disease that lead to the accumulation (ie diagnosis). The tools available to the pathologist include (most importantly) histologic examination with iron stain, quantitative iron analysis, clinical history, laboratory iron tests (serum iron and iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin) and germline genetic analysis for mutations in genes known to be associated with hemochromatosis (HFE, ferroportin, hepcidin, hemojuvelin, transferrin receptor-2). This article provides an overview of the above.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease is associated with significant leukocyte infiltration, including activated macrophages; however, the polarization of infiltrating macrophages remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we characterized macrophage polarization and phenotype in chronic O. viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease in humans and hamsters using gene expression and histochemical analysis. Chronic O. viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary diseases were associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages in both humans and hamsters. This study provides suggestive evidence that iron loaded M2-like macrophages promote hepatobiliary disease in chronic O. viverrini infection.
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology 12/2014; 52(6):695-9. DOI:10.3347/kjp.2014.52.6.695 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Iron saccharate complex ISC is an iron supplement used to optimize erythropoiesis in cases of iron deficiencies. Because of the lack of major mechanisms of iron excretion, excess iron unbound to protective molecules is believed to be involved in catalyzing the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of oxidative stress. This study employed ISC for the purpose of inducing iron overload and hence investigating the consequent iron toxicity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant extent in a murine species. Male Wistar rats were given iron as intraperitoneal injections of ISC in subacute (0.2 mg Fe kg−1 for 2 weeks) and subchronic (0.1 mg Fe kg−1 for 4 weeks) doses. In iron-overloaded rats, enhanced hepatic iron accumulation (P > 0.001) attended by increased serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P > 0.001) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase SOD, catalase CAT and glutathione peroxidase GPx) (P > 0.001) was pointed out. The demonstrated antioxidant boost is attributed to a sense of equilibrium prompted by the potential of iron-induced oxidative stress to modify antioxidant defense capacity and to modulate susceptibility to oxidative stress. Rats seemed to constantly suffer from oxidative stress based on the consistent rise in MDA that was not overwhelmed by the elevated antioxidant input. The current findings are of informative value in drawing attention to the health hazards of applying higher doses of the commercially used iron supplement ISC. Data are virtually significant in elucidating the higher magnitude of subchronic than subacute iron overload in initiating oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Both pathways proceeded in a time-dependent rather than dose-dependent manner.
    Biologia 06/2014; 69:817-824. DOI:10.2478/s11756-014-0364-x · 0.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb) from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107641. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107641 · 3.53 Impact Factor


Available from