Auditory interhemispheric transfer deficits, hearing difficulties, and brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in children with congenital aniridia due to PAX6 mutations.

Academic Unit of Audiological Medicine, Institute of Child Health, Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, and Division of Inherited Eye Disease, and Moorfields Eye Hospital, University College London, UK.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.25). 06/2007; 161(5):463-9. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.161.5.463
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess auditory processing, hearing difficulties, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging abnormalities in children with panocular developmental aniridia due to PAX6 mutations.
Case-control study.
Great Ormond Street Hospital and Institute of Child Health.
Eleven case subjects with PAX6 mutations and 11 age-matched and sex-matched healthy control subjects.
All subjects completed a structured hearing questionnaire, baseline audiometry, and central auditory tests (dichotic speech tests, frequency and duration pattern tests, and gaps-in-noise test). Case subjects underwent brain MR imaging with volumetry, and the results were compared with those of age-matched and sex-matched healthy control subjects randomly selected from the Radiology and Physics Unit database.
Brain MR imaging, central auditory test results, and questionnaire scores.
The corpus callosum area was significantly smaller on brain volumetry in the cases compared with the controls. The anterior commissure was small in 7 cases and was normal in 3 cases on visual inspection of brain MR images (conducted in 10 of 11 cases). Audiograms showed no abnormalities in any of the children. Central auditory test results were normal in all the controls and were abnormal in all the cases except for 1 case with a pattern of abnormalities consistent with reduced auditory interhemispheric transfer. The cases had greater difficulty localizing sound and understanding speech in noise than the controls.
Despite normal audiograms, children with PAX6 mutations may experience auditory interhemispheric transfer deficits and have difficulty localizing sound and understanding speech in noise. In view of their additional visual difficulties, thorough audiological evaluation of these children is indicated to initiate appropriate management.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations affecting the PAX6 gene result in aniridia, a condition characterized by the lack of an iris and other panocular defects. Among humans with aniridia, structural abnormalities also have been reported within the brain. The current study examined the functional implications of these deficits through "resting state" or task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 individuals with aniridia and 12 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Using independent components analysis (ICA) and dual regression, individual patterns of functional connectivity associated with three intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs; executive control, primary visual, and default mode) were compared across groups. In all three analyses, the aniridia group exhibited regions of greater connectivity correlated with the network, while the controls did not show any such regions. These differences suggest that individuals with aniridia recruit additional neural regions to supplement function in critical intrinsic networks, possibly due to inherent structural or sensory abnormalities related to the disorder.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12/2014; 8:1013. · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Midbrain-hindbrain involvement in septo-optic dysplasia has not been well described, despite reported mutations of genes regulating brain stem patterning. We aimed to describe midbrain-hindbrain involvement in patients with septo-optic dysplasia and to identify possible clinical-neuroimaging correlations. Using MR imaging, we categorized 38 patients (21 males) based on the presence (group A, 21 patients) or absence (group B, 17 patients) of visible brain stem anomalies. We measured height and anteroposterior diameter of midbrain, pons, and medulla, anteroposterior midbrain/pons diameter (M/P ratio), vermian height, and tegmento-vermian angle, and compared the results with 114 healthy age-matched controls. Furthermore, patients were subdivided based on the type of midline anomalies. The associations between clinical and neuroradiological features were investigated. Post hoc tests were corrected according to Bonferroni adjustment (pB). Patients with brain stem abnormalities had smaller anteroposterior pons diameter than controls (pB < .0001) and group B (pB = .012), higher M/P ratio than controls (pB < .0001) and group B (pB < .0001), and smaller anteroposterior medulla diameter (pB = .001), pontine height (pB = .00072), and vermian height (pB = .0009) than controls. Six of 21 patients in group A had thickened quadrigeminal plate, aqueductal stenosis, and hydrocephalus; 3 also had agenesis of the epithalamus. One patient had a short midbrain with long pons and large superior vermis. There was a statistically significant association between brain stem abnormalities and callosal dysgenesis (P = .011) and developmental delay (P = .035), respectively. Midbrain-hindbrain abnormalities are a significant, albeit underrecognized, component of the septo-optic dysplasia spectrum, and are significantly associated with developmental delay in affected patients.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 04/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a direct, non-invasive view of neural activity with millisecond temporal precision. Recent developments in MEG analysis allow for improved source localization and mapping of connectivity between brain regions, expanding the possibilities for using MEG as a diagnostic tool. In this paper, we first describe inverse imaging methods (e.g., minimum-norm estimation) and functional connectivity measures, and how they can provide insights into cortical processing. We then offer a perspective on how these techniques could be used to understand and evaluate auditory pathologies that often manifest during development. Here we focus specifically on how MEG inverse imaging, by providing anatomically based interpretation of neural activity, may allow us to test which aspects of cortical processing play a role in (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD]. Appropriately combining auditory paradigms with MEG analysis could eventually prove useful for a hypothesis-driven understanding and diagnosis of (C)APD or other disorders, as well as the evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention strategies.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 03/2014; 8:151. · 2.90 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 31, 2014