An illustrated history of anterior cruciate ligament surgery.
ABSTRACT The past 30 years have brought remarkable change in the evolution of ACL surgery. Surgeons have recognized the important role of the ACL and developed techniques for its reconstruction. As these techniques evolved, certain themes echo throughout the historical literature. Dynamic, nonisometric operations have not worked well, nor have synthetic substitutes. Perhaps most importantly, the more anatomic the reconstruction, the better it was able to restore patient function and the more predictable the result. Technological advances allowed these techniques to be refined so that they are now routinely performed with less tissue trauma, faster recovery, and reproducibly excellent results. This article reviews the historical surgical progress that has evolved coupled with overlapping controversies and concepts, which have impacted surgical changes.
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ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study are to describe an ACL femoral tunnel classification system for use in planning revision ACL reconstruction based on 3-D computed tomography (CT) reconstructions and to evaluate its inter- and intra-rater reliability. A femoral tunnel classification system was developed based on the location of the femoral tunnel relative to the lateral intercondylar ridge. The femoral tunnel was classified as Type I if it was located entirely below and posterior to the ridge as viewed from distally, Type II if it was slightly malpositioned (either vertically, anteriorly, or both), and Type III if it was significantly malpositioned. To evaluate the reproducibility of the classification system, CT scans of 27 knees were obtained from patients scheduled for revision ACL reconstruction, and 3-D reconstructions were created. Four views of the 3-D reconstruction of each femur were then obtained, and inter- and intra-observer reliability was determined following classification of the tunnels by eight observers. Twenty-five tunnels were classified as Type I (5 tunnels), Type II (9 tunnels), or type III (11 tunnels) by at least 5 of 8 observers, while insufficient agreement was noted to classify two tunnels. The interobserver reliability of tunnel classification as type I, II, or III yielded a κ coefficient of 0.57, while intra-observer reliability yielded a κ coefficient of 0.67. Subclassification of type II femoral tunnels into the subgroups anterior, vertical, and both was possible in four of the nine type II patients. The interobserver reliability of the complete classification system yielded a κ coefficient of 0.50, while the intra-observer reliability yielded a κ coefficient of 0.54. Classification of the location of ACL femoral tunnels utilizing 3-D reconstructions of CT data yields moderate to substantial inter- and intra-observer reliability. Diagnostic Level III.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 12/2011; 20(7):1298-306. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Between 5 and 20% of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction fail and require revision. Animal studies have demonstrated slower incorporation of allograft tissue, which may affect the mechanism of graft failure. The purpose of this study is to determine the location of traumatic graft failure following ACL reconstruction and investigate differences in failure patterns between autografts and allografts. The medical records of 34 consecutive patients at our center undergoing revision ACL reconstruction following a documented traumatic re-injury were reviewed. Graft utilized in the primary reconstruction, time from initial reconstruction to re-injury, activity at re-injury, time to revision reconstruction, and location of ACL graft tear were recorded. Median patient age at primary ACL reconstruction was 18.5 years (range, 13-39 years). The primary reconstructions included 20 autografts (13 hamstrings, 6 patellar tendons, 1 iliotibial band), 12 allografts (5 patellar tendon, 5 tibialis anterior tendons, 2 achilles tendons), and 2 unknown. The median time from primary reconstruction to re-injury was 1.2 years (range, 0.4 - 17.6 years). The median time from re-injury to revision reconstruction was 10.4 weeks (range, 1 to 241 weeks). Failure location could be determined in 30 patients. In the autograft group 14 of 19 grafts failed near their femoral attachment, while in the allograft group 2 of 11 grafts failed near their femoral attachment (p < 0.02). When ACL autografts fail traumatically, they frequently fail near their femoral origin, while allograft reconstructions that fail are more likely to fail in other locations or stretch. Level III - Retrospective cohort study.Sports Medicine Arthroscopy Rehabilitation Therapy & Technology 06/2012; 4(1):22.