An illustrated history of anterior cruciate ligament surgery.
ABSTRACT The past 30 years have brought remarkable change in the evolution of ACL surgery. Surgeons have recognized the important role of the ACL and developed techniques for its reconstruction. As these techniques evolved, certain themes echo throughout the historical literature. Dynamic, nonisometric operations have not worked well, nor have synthetic substitutes. Perhaps most importantly, the more anatomic the reconstruction, the better it was able to restore patient function and the more predictable the result. Technological advances allowed these techniques to be refined so that they are now routinely performed with less tissue trauma, faster recovery, and reproducibly excellent results. This article reviews the historical surgical progress that has evolved coupled with overlapping controversies and concepts, which have impacted surgical changes.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Bernard R Bach, Jul 28, 2015
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- "To address the problems associated with current ACL grafts, several alternative approaches have been attempted, including the use of synthetic grafts, as far back as the 1970s. Such synthetic grafts, composed of various polymers, have been employed as both standalone grafts and as tissue augments (McCulloch et al., 2007). Although initial results were often quite good, unfortunately using synthetic grafts reconstructions were found to be universal failures after intermediate and long-term follow-up (Ventura et al., 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the one of the most common sports-related injuries. With its poor healing capacity, surgical reconstruction using either autografts or allografts is currently required to restore function. However, serious complications are associated with graft reconstructions and the number of such reconstructions has steadily risen over the years, necessitating the search for an alternative approach to ACL repair. Such an approach may likely be tissue engineering. Recent engineering approaches using ligament-derived fibroblasts have been promising, but the slow growth rate of such fibroblasts in vitro may limit their practical application. More promising results are being achieved using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) is often proposed as an alternative choice to the MSC and, as such, may be a suitable stem cell for ligament engineering. However, the use of ASCs in ligament engineering still remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, in this study, the potential use of human ASCs in ligament tissue engineering was initially explored by examining their ability to express several ligament markers under growth factor treatment. ASC populations treated for up to 4 weeks with TGFβ1 or IGF1 did not show any significant and consistent upregulation in the expression of collagen types 1 and 3, tenascin C and scleraxis. While treatment with EGF or bFGF resulted in increased tenascin C expression, increased expression of collagens 1 and 3 were never observed. Therefore, simple in vitro treatment of human ASC populations with growth factors may not stimulate their ligament differentiative potential. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 10/2012; 6(9). DOI:10.1002/term.474 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conventional tunnel positions for single-bundle (SB) transtibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are located in the posterolateral (PL) tibial footprint and the anteromedial (AM) femoral footprint, resulting in an anatomic mismatch graft that is more vertical than native fibers. This vertical mismatch position may significantly influence the ability of an ACL graft to stabilize the knee. Anatomic ACL fibers undergo a greater change in length during anterior translation and internal rotation than a conventional SB reconstruction from the PL tibial footprint to the AM femoral footprint. Controlled laboratory study. The Praxim ACL Surgetics navigation system was used to acquire kinematic data during a flexion/extension cycle and to register all points within the ACL footprint from 5 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees. Virtual fibers were placed in the center of the AM and PL bundles as well as central and conventional SB positions. After transection of the ACL, the absolute length change and apparent strain of the fibers were computed for each knee during the Lachman and anterior drawer tests and internal rotation at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion. Each of the anatomic fibers (AM, PL, and central) had more elongation and apparent strain than the conventional SB fiber during the Lachman maneuver. During the anterior drawer test, the AM and central (but not the PL) fibers lengthened significantly more and the AM had more apparent strain than the conventional SB fiber. During internal rotation at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion, anatomic fibers elongated significantly more than the conventional fiber. Except for the AM fiber with the knee at full extension, apparent strain was greater in all anatomic fibers than in the conventional SB fiber during internal rotation maneuvers. In ACL-deficient cadaveric knees, anatomic fibers undergo greater elongation and apparent strain in response to anterior translation and internal rotation maneuvers than a conventional SB graft. Because of their optimal orientation, anatomic fibers may resist pathologic anterior translation and internal rotation more than the conventional SB position. Conventional placement of a single-bundle graft results in suboptimal changes in fiber length and strain, suggesting that alternatives such as anatomic placement of an SB graft or double-bundle reconstruction may result in greater control of translation and rotation.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 08/2008; 36(11):2196-203. DOI:10.1177/0363546508320764 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL) is a common sport injury; however, there are no data concerning dance and ACL injury. We report the incidence, injury mechanism, and clinical follow-up of ACL injury in professional dancers. In a retrospective cohort study involving the three major dance companies in the Netherlands, by interviewing all 253 dancers who had had a full-time contract during 1991-2002, dancers with symptomatic ACL injury or past ACL reconstruction were identified and examined. 6 dancers (2 of whom were women) had had a symptomatic ACL rupture and reconstruction. Interestingly, all had been on the left side and had had a similar trauma mechanism: while dancing a classical variation they landed, after a jump, on their left leg, in the turned out position with a valgus force on their knee. There was a higher risk of ACL injury in the classical company than in the two contemporary companies. The risk of dancers having a rupture of the left ACL during a 10-year career in this classical company was 7%. ACL injuries are not an infrequently seen type of injury in professional classical dancers, with a very specific mechanism of injury--a landing on the left leg in exorotation. More attention and prophylactic measures should be given to this specific injury mechanism.Acta Orthopaedica 09/2008; 79(4):515-8. DOI:10.1080/17453670710015517 · 2.45 Impact Factor