Whether wild-caught animals used for biomedical research carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria is not well studied. Thirteen- lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) are small mammals used to study hibernation. These animals are captured from the wild or are born in laboratory animal facilities to wild-caught mothers. Because microorganisms harbored by 13-lined ground squirrels may be pathogenic to their caretakers and other laboratory animals, learning more about antibiotic resistance in these animals could be useful. In this study, tetracycline- and chloramphenicol-resistant Morganella morganii and multidrug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were isolated from the ceca of four 13-lined ground squirrels. These findings support further study of antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations in wild-caught mammals used as laboratory models.
"Although enzyme activity is relatively slow at the low temperatures of deep torpor (o10 1C), host-derived substrates can be rapidly degraded during interbout arousals and result in the production of SCFAs and other microbial metabolites (Carey et al., 2013; Duddleston et al., 2012; Stevenson, 2014). Previous culture-based studies in thirteen-lined ground squirrels indicated that microbes associated with cecal contents ( " luminal microbiota " ) were reduced in number and species composition during hibernation compared to summer active ( " summer " ) squirrels (Barnes and Burton, 1970), and bacteria could be readily cultured from mucosal tissue of hibernators (Cloud-Hansen et al., 2007). However, as noted previously, culture-based studies are limited because the majority of gut microbes are unculturable with current techniques. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The environments in which animals have evolved and live have profound effects on all aspects of their biology. Predictable rhythmic changes in the physical environment are arguably among the most important forces shaping the evolution of behavior and physiology of animals, and to anticipate and prepare for these predictable changes animals have evolved biological clocks. Unpredictable changes in the physical environment have important impacts on animal biology as well. The ability of animals to cope with and survive unpredictable perturbations depends on phenotypic plasticity and/or microevolution. From the time metazoans first evolved from their protistan ancestors they have lived in close association with a diverse array of microbes that have influenced, in some way, all aspects of the evolution of animal structure, function and behavior. Yet, few studies have addressed whether daily or seasonal rhythms may affect, or be affected by, an animal’s microbial symbionts. This survey highlights how biologists interested in the ecological and evolutionary physiology of animals whose lifestyles are influenced by environmental cycles may benefit from considering whether symbiotic microbes have shaped the features they study.
"There is limited information relating to S. maltophilia infection in animals. Although isolated from fish and snakes (Hejnar et al., 2007), from bovine and ovine milk (Litopoulou-Tzanetaki and Vafopoulou-Mastrojiannaki, 1995), from rabbit faeces (Draper et al., 1981), and from the gastrointestinal tract of laboratory animals (Toledo-Pereyra et al., 1974; Cloud-Hansen et al., 2007), S. maltophilia has only once been reported as an equine pathogen (Albini et al., 2009). However, one in vitro study of S. maltophilia and influenza concluded that co-infection with S. maltophilia could enhance the pathogenicity of equine influenza virus (Mancini et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only little is known about normal oral bacterial flora in captive snakes containing Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This microbe has been reported as a causative agent of numerous infections in reptiles. Therefore, the goal of the study was to detect its presence in the mouths of a significant number of healthy captive snakes and determining its susceptibility to antibiotics at 30 and 37 degrees C. The isolates were obtained in 1999-2005 from mouth swabs of 115 snakes of 12 genera and 22 species-most often Elaphe guttata (24 individuals; 20.9%). Susceptibility to 24 antibiotics was tested by the microdilution method. The microbe was demonstrated in 34 (29.6%) individuals. Overall, 47 strains of S. maltophilia were acquired. Evaluation using PFGE profiles and antibiograms resulted in confirmation of one strain of S. maltophilia in 23 (20.0%) individuals, two strains in nine (7.8%) and three in two (1.8%) snakes. All tested antibiotics were more effective at 37 degrees C, with the partial exception of cotrimoxazole and cefoperazone/sulbactam. At a temperature of 37 degrees C, the lowest frequency of resistance to levofloxacin (no resistant strains), cotrimoxazole and ofloxacin (97.9% of susceptible strains) was recorded. At 30 degrees C, the most active agents were cotrimoxazole (97.9% of susceptible strains), levofloxacin (91.5%) and ofloxacin (85.1%). In conclusion, S. maltophilia is present in the mouths of about one third of healthy captive snakes, showing good susceptibility to cotrimoxazole, some fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The antibiotics (particularly aminoglycosides) are more effective at 37 degrees C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the presence of antibiotic-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in populations of wild mammals in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Rectal swabs or faeces collected during 2006-2008 from wild mammals were spread on MacConkey agar and MacConkey agar containing 2 mg l(-1) of cefotaxime. From plates with positive growth, one isolate was recovered and identified as E. coli. Susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion method. Resistance genes, class 1 and 2 integrons and gene cassettes were detected in resistant isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were further characterized by DNA sequencing, macrorestriction profiling and determination of plasmid sizes. Plasmid DNA was subjected to EcoRV digestion, transferability by conjugation and incompatibility grouping by multiplex PCR. The prevalence of resistant isolates was 2% in small terrestrial mammals (rodents and insectivores, n(E. coli) = 242), 12% in wild ruminants and foxes (n(E. coli) = 42), while no resistant isolates were detected in brown bears (n(E. coli) = 16). In wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n(E. coli) = 290), the prevalence of resistant isolates was 6%. Class 1 and 2 integrons with various gene cassettes were recorded in resistant isolates. From wild boars, five (2%, n(rectal smears) = 293) multiresistant isolates producing ESBL were recovered: one isolate with bla(CTX-M-1) + bla(TEM-1), three with bla(CTX-M-1) and one with bla(TEM-52b). The bla(CTX-M-1) genes were carried on approx. 90 kb IncI1 conjugative plasmids.
Antibiotic-resistant E. coli occurred in populations of wild mammals in various prevalences.
Wild mammals are reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant E. coli including ESBL-producing strains which were found in wild boars.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.