Article

Fetal-maternal interactions during the establishment of pregnancy in ruminants

Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Departments of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.
Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement 02/2007; 64:379-96. DOI: 10.5661/RDR-VI-379
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review integrates established information with new insights into molecular and physiological mechanisms responsible for events leading to pregnancy recognition, endometrial receptivity, and implantation with emphasis on sheep. After formation of the corpus luteum, progesterone acts on the endometrium and stimulates blastocyst growth and elongation to form a filamentous conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). Recurrent early pregnancy loss in the uterine gland knockout ewe model indicates that endometrial epithelial secretions are essential for peri-implantation blastocyst survival and growth. The elongating sheep conceptus secretes interferon tau (IFNT) that acts on the endometrium to inhibit development of the luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene in the luminal (LE) and superficial ductal glandular (sGE) epithelia, which prevents estrogen-induction of oxytocin receptors (OXTR) and production of luteolytic prostaglandin F2-alpha pulses. Progesterone downregulates its receptors (PGR) in LE and then GE, correlating with a reduction of anti-adhesive MUC1 (mucin glycoprotein one) and induction of secreted LGALS15 (galectin 15) and SPP1 (secreted phosphoprotein one), that are proposed to regulate trophectoderm growth and adhesion. IFNT acts on the LE to induce WNT7A (wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 7A) and to stimulate LGALS15, CTSL (cathepsin L), and CST3 (cystatin C), which may regulate conceptus development and implantation. During the peri-implantation period, trophoblast giant binucleate cells (BNC) begin to differentiate from mononuclear trophectoderm cells, migrate and then fuse with the uterine LE as well as each other to form multinucleated syncytial plaques. Trophoblast giant BNC secrete chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH1 or placental lactogen) that acts on the endometrial glands to stimulate their morphogenesis and differentiated function. The interactive, coordinated and stage-specific effects of ovarian and placental hormones regulate endometrial events necessary for fetal-maternal interactions and successful establishment of pregnancy.

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    • "Testing this hypothesis requires the resolution of a number of challenges, including the ethical impossibility of obtaining human endometrium tissue samples during early pregnancy. The sheep, a species with epitheliochorial implantation, was considered to be a useful model to explore the physiological, molecular and biochemical events at the endometrial–extraembryonic membrane interface during early pregnancy (Spencer et al. 2007, Satterfield et al. 2009). In sheep, embryonic trophectoderm cells begin contact with the luminal endometrium epithelium between day 13 of pregnancy (P13) and P15 and then attach to endometrial cells on day 16, a process completed by day 22 post mating (Spencer et al. 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The expression and regulation of endometrial proteins are crucial for conceptus implantation and development. However, little is known about site-specific proteome profiles of the mammalian endometrium during the peri-implantation period. We utilised a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to compare and identify differentially expressed proteins in sheep endometrium. Caruncular and intercaruncular endometrium were collected on days 12 (C12) and 16 (C16) of the oestrous cycle and at three stages of pregnancy corresponding to conceptus pre-attachment (P12), implantation (P16) and post-implantation (P20). Abundance and localisation changes in differentially expressed proteins were determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. In caruncular endometrium, 45 protein spots (5% of total spots) altered between day 12 of pregnancy (P12) and P16 while 85 protein spots (10% of total spots) were differentially expressed between P16 and C16. In intercaruncular endometrium, 31 protein spots (2% of total spots) were different between P12 and P16 while 44 protein spots (4% of total spots) showed differential expression between C12 and C16. The pattern of protein changes between caruncle and intercaruncle sites was markedly different. Among the protein spots with implantation-related changes in volume, 11 proteins in the caruncular endometrium and six proteins in the intercaruncular endometrium, with different functions such as protein synthesis and degradation, antioxidant defence, cell structural integrity, adhesion and signal transduction, were identified. Our findings highlight the different but important roles of the caruncular and intercaruncular proteins during early pregnancy.
    Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 04/2014; 147(5-5):599-614. DOI:10.1530/REP-13-0600 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized by virtually all nucleated cells of the body and represent a family of lipid mediators acting locally to maintain homeostasis through complementary and sometimes opposite actions (Poyser, 1995; Lim et al., 1997; Thatcher et al., 2001; Jabbour and Sales, 2004; Spencer et al., 2007; Smith et al., 2011). PGs are particularly important for normal female reproductive function and also contribute to pathological conditions in that system (Jabbour and Sales, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins are important regulators of female reproductive function. The primary PGs produced in the endometrium are PGE2 and PGF2α. Relatively little is known about the biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of PGF2α. We have described the role of aldoketoreductase (AKR)1B1 in increased PGF2α production by human endometrial cells following stimulation with Interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, alternate PGF synthases are expressed concurrently in endometrial cells. A definite proof of the role of AKR1B1 would require gene knockout; unfortunately, this gene has no direct equivalent in the mouse. Recently, an efficient genome editing technology using RNA-guided DNase Cas9 and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been developed. We have adapted this approach to knockout AKR1B1 gene expression in human endometrial cell lines. One clone (16-2) of stromal origin generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system exhibited a complete loss of AKR1B1 protein and mRNA expression, whereas other clones presented with partial edition. The present report focuses on the characterization of clone 16-2 exhibiting deletion of 68 and 2 nucleotides respectively on each of the alleles. Cells from this clone lost their ability to produce PGF2α but maintained their original stromal cell (HIESC-2) phenotype including the capacity to decidualize in presence of progesterone (MPA) and 8-bromo-cAMP. Knockout cells also maintained their ability to increase PGE2 production in response to IL-1β. In summary, we demonstrate that the new genome editing CRISPR-Cas9 system can be used in human cells to generate stable knockout cell line models. Our results suggest that genome editing of human cell lines can be used to complement mouse KO models to validate the function of genes in differentiated tissues and cells. Our results also confirm that AKR1B1 is involved in the synthesis of PGF2α.
    Molecular Human Reproduction 03/2014; DOI:10.1093/molehr/gau023 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    • "Although blastocysts can develop entirely in vitro, they must be transferred into a receptive uterus for growth and development into an elongated conceptus [5]. The endometrium of the uterus secretes substances, collectively termed histotroph, that govern growth and elongation of the conceptus via effects on trophectoderm proliferation and migration as well as attachment and adhesion to the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) [1], [6], [7]. Histotroph is derived primarily from transport and/or synthesis and secretion of substances by the endometrial LE and glandular epithelia (GE) and is a complex and rather undefined mixture of proteins, lipids, amino acids, sugars and ions [8], [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Microvesicles and exosomes are nanoparticles released from cells and can contain small RNAs, mRNA and proteins that affect cells at distant sites. In sheep, endogenous beta retroviruses (enJSRVs) are expressed in the endometrial epithelia of the uterus and can be transferred to the conceptus trophectoderm. One potential mechanism of enJSRVs transfer from the uterus to the conceptus is via exosomes/microvesicles. Therefore, studies were conducted to evaluate exosomes in the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of sheep. Exosomes/microvesicles (hereafter referred to as extracellular vesicles) were isolated from the ULF of day 14 cyclic and pregnant ewes using ExoQuick-TC. Transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis found the isolates contained vesicles that ranged from 50 to 200 nm in diameter. The isolated extracellular vesicles were positive for two common markers of exosomes (CD63 and HSP70) by Western blot analysis. Proteins in the extracellular vesicles were determined by mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. Extracellular vesicle RNA was analyzed for small RNAs by sequencing and enJSRVs RNA by RT-PCR. The ULF extracellular vesicles contained a large number of small RNAs and miRNAs including 81 conserved mature miRNAs. Cyclic and pregnant ULF extracellular vesicles contained enJSRVs env and gag RNAs that could be delivered to heterologous cells in vitro. These studies support the hypothesis that ULF extracellular vesicles can deliver enJSRVs RNA to the conceptus, which is important as enJSRVs regulate conceptus trophectoderm development. Importantly, these studies support the idea that extracellular vesicles containing select miRNAs, RNAs and proteins are present in the ULF and likely have a biological role in conceptus-endometrial interactions important for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90913. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090913 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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