Differential requirement of P2X7 receptor and intracellular K+ for caspase-1 activation induced by intracellular and extracellular bacteria

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 07/2007; 282(26):18810-8. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M610762200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in host defense and inflammatory diseases. The maturation and secretion of IL-1beta are mediated by caspase-1, a protease that processes pro-IL-1beta into biologically active IL-1beta. The activity of caspase-1 is controlled by the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex formed by NLR proteins and the adaptor ASC, that induces the activation of caspase-1. The current model proposes that changes in the intracellular concentration of K(+) potentiate caspase-1 activation induced by the recognition of bacterial products. However, the roles of P2X7 receptor and intracellular K(+) in IL-1beta secretion induced by bacterial infection remain unknown. Here we show that, in response to Toll-like receptor agonists such as lipopolysaccharide or infection with extracellular bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, efficient caspase-1 activation is only triggered by addition of ATP, a signal that promotes caspase-1 activation through depletion of intracellular K(+) caused by stimulation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor. In contrast, activation of caspase-1 that relies on cytosolic sensing of flagellin or intracellular bacteria did not require ATP stimulation or depletion of cytoplasmic K(+). Consistently, caspase-1 activation induced by intracellular Salmonella or Listeria was unimpaired in macrophages deficient in P2X7 receptor. These results indicate that, unlike caspase-1 induced by Toll-like receptor agonists and ATP, activation of the inflammasome by intracellular bacteria and cytosolic flagellin proceeds normally in the absence of P2X7 receptor-mediated cytoplasmic K(+) perturbations.

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