Whether the intake of dietary fiber can protect against colorectal cancer is a long-standing question of considerable public health import, but the epidemiologic evidence has been inconsistent.
The objective was to investigate the relation between dietary fiber and whole-grain food intakes and invasive colorectal cancer in the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.
The analytic cohort consisted of 291 988 men and 197 623 women aged 50-71 y. Diet was assessed with a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1995-1996; 2974 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified during 5 y of follow-up. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs.
Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with colorectal cancer. The multivariate RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake quintile (RR(Q5-Q1)) was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.15; P for trend = 0.96). In analyses of fiber from different food sources, only fiber from grains was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate RR(Q5-Q1): 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98; P for trend = 0.01). Whole-grain intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk: the multivariate RR(Q5-Q1) was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89) for the whole cohort (P for trend < 0.001). The association with whole grain was stronger for rectal than for colon cancer.
In this large prospective cohort study, total dietary fiber intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas whole-grain consumption was associated with a modest reduced risk.
"Also, it is deficient in calcium and dietary fibre. Dietary fibers have the potential to reduce blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (Brown et al., 1999), risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 (Willet et al., 2002), coronary heart disease (Bazzano et al., 2003; Singh et al., 2014a; b), blood pressure, obesity (Liu et al., 2003) and colorectal cancer (Schatzkin et al., 2007; Tharanathan and Mahadevamma, 2003). Finger millet is a potent source of calcium, dietary fibre and antioxidant phenolic compounds including tannins (Viswanath et al., 2009; Singh and Raghuvansi, 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The present study was conducted to develop functional emu meat nuggets incorporated with Finger millet flour (FMF) with high fibre content and improved oxidative stability.
FMF was incorporated at 4%, 6% and 8% levels with replacement of emu meat in nuggets formulation and on the basis of various physico-chemical, instrumental colour and sensory parameters, 6% FMF was selected as optimum. The functional emu meat nuggets incorporated with optimum level of FMF as well as control were aerobically packaged in LDPE bags and stored for 21 days at refrigeration (4±1oC) and evaluated for oxidative stability, microbiological quality and sensory attributes at regular interval of seven days.
The fat content showed significant (p<0.05) decrease, whereas the crude fibre content increased significantly (p<0.05) with the increasing levels of incorporation. The sensory scores for all the attributes in 6% FMF incorporated product were higher than control. During entire storage studies, the TBARS, free fatty acid and peroxide value followed an increasing trend for control as well as treatment product, however treatment showed a significantly (p<0.05) lower value than control throughout the storage period. Standard plate count increased significantly (P<0.05) for control and treatment product, but the counts were lower than the prescribed limits even on 21st day of storage.
The developed products will have functional value by increasing the calcium and dietary fibre content by utilizing the minor cereals. This will be highly beneficial to the agriculture as well as meat industry.
The research findings demonstrated the use of finger millet flour in the development of calcium and fibre enriched emu meat nuggets with improved oxidative stability.
"Annual output of nearly 200,000 tons of wheat bran in China provides a wealth of raw materials (Zhou et al., 2010) for AX extraction and utilization. It is well known that dietary AXs prevent lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type II diabetes (Broekaert et al., 2011; Garcia et al., 2006), reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer (Schatzkin et al., 2007), and increase immunopotentiating activity in mice (Ogawa, Takeuchi, & Nakamura, 2005). A previous study in our laboratory showed that AXs extracted from wheat bran by alkaline or enzyme-aided procedures all could be explored as the good source of natural immunomodulator (Zhou et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of dietary wheat bran arabinoxylans (AXs) on cholesterol metabolism in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed the experimental diets containing AXs or oat β-glucan at a dose of 5 g/kg for 30 days. As the results, the AXs lowered plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and increased excretions of total lipids, cholesterol and bile acids, as well as oat β-glucan. The AXs reduced the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, and increased the activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in liver. Moreover, the AXs increased propionate and the total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations. These results indicated that dietary AXs reduced the plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1, and increasing colonic SCFAs in hamsters.
"In a high-risk population of a Cochrane review, which evaluated the effect of dietary fiber on the incidence or recurrence of colorectal adenomas and the incidence of CRC (including 5 RCTs and 4,349 cases), greater dietary fiber intake did not lower the incidence or the recurrence of adenomatous polyps over a period lasting two to four years (RR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.95–1.13).36 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle.19,20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55-64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Gastroenterology 07/2014; 7:33-46. DOI:10.4137/CGast.S14039
Min-Gul Kim, Baik-Hwan Cho, Soo-Wan Chae, Tae-Sun Park, Dal-Sik Kim
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