Immune modulation by parenteral lipid emulsions
ABSTRACT Total parenteral nutrition is the final option for nutritional support of patients with severe intestinal failure. Lipid emulsions constitute the main source of fuel calories and fatty acids (FAs) in parenteral nutrition formulations. However, adverse effects on patient outcomes have been attributed to the use of lipids, mostly in relation to impaired immune defenses and altered inflammatory responses. Over the years, this issue has remained in the limelight, also because technical advances have provided no safeguard against the most daunting problems, ie, infectious complications. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have failed to produce a clear picture of the immunologic characteristics of the most commonly used soybean oil-derived lipid emulsions, although their high content of n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) has been considered a drawback because of their proinflammatory potential. This concern initiated the development of emulsions in which part of the n-6 FA component is replaced by less bioactive FAs, such as coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated FAs) or olive oil (rich in the n-9 monounsaturated FA oleic acid). Another approach has been to use fish oil (rich in n-3 PUFA), the FAs of which have biological activities different from those of n-6 PUFAs. Recent studies on the modulation of host defenses and inflammation by fish-oil emulsions have yielded consistent data, which indicate that these emulsions may provide a tool to beneficially alter the course of immune-mediated conditions. Although most of these lipids have not yet become available on the US market, this review synthesizes available information on immunologic characteristics of the different lipids that currently can be applied via parenteral nutrition support.
- SourceAvailable from: David A Ford
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- "Chronic low-grade inflammation underlies the pathology of most metabolic disorders, and free n-3 PUFA has been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory properties . N-3 PUFA alleviates inflammation by directly regulating transcription factors involved in inflammation [59-61] and indirectly by producing series-3 and series-5 eicosanoids [62,63]. In addition to their inflammation resolving properties, free unesterified n-3 PUFA have also been shown to improve symptoms of dyslipidaemia [9-11]. "
ABSTRACT: Omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are converted to bioactive lipid components that are important mediators in metabolic and physiological pathways; however, which bioactive compounds are metabolically active, and their mechanisms of action are still not clear. We investigated using lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20% w/w fat) containing varying amounts of n-3 PUFA before mating, during gestation and lactation, and until weaning. Male offspring were continued on their mothers' diets for 16 weeks. Hepatic and plasma lipids were extracted in the presence of non-naturally occurring internal standards, and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the fatty acyl compositions. There was no significant difference in total concentrations of phospholipids in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and cholesteryl esters (CE) (p < 0.01) in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the low n-3 PUFA group in both liver and plasma. Plasma and liver from the high n-3 PUFA group also had a higher concentration of free n-3 PUFA (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of different fatty acyl species of phosphatidylethanolamine, triglycerides, sphingomyelin and ceramides. Our findings reveal for the first time that a diet high in n-3 PUFA caused enrichment of n-3 PUFA in PC, LPC, CE and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice. PC, LPC, and unesterified free n-3 PUFA are important bioactive lipids, thus altering their fatty acyl composition will have important metabolic and physiological roles.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e82399. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082399 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "Lipid mediators are synthesized by three main pathways, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450, by using fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA) as substrates , but the biological anti-inflammatory activities of EPA and GLA are far beyond the simple regulation of eicosanoid production. For instance, EPAs can affect immune cell responses through the regulation of gene expression and subsequent downstream events by acting as ligands for nuclear receptors  and as control transcription factors . EPA can also affect the activity of the proinflammatory transcription nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which regulates the expression of many proinflammatory gene-encoding adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines and other effectors of the innate immune response system . "
ABSTRACT: Enteral nutrition (EN) with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/γ-linolenic acid (GLA) is recommended for mechanically ventilated patients with severe lung injury. EPA/GLA has anti-inflammatory benefits, as evidenced by its association with reduction in pulmonary inflammation, improvement in oxygenation and improved clinical outcomes in patients with severe forms of acute lung injury. This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial designed to investigate whether EPA/GLA could have an effective role in the treatment of patients with early sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome with confirmed or presumed infection and without any organ dysfunction) by reducing the progression of the disease to severe sepsis (sepsis associated with at least one organ failure) or septic shock (sepsis associated with hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation). Secondary outcomes included the development of individual organ failure, increased ICU and hospital length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation and 28-day all-cause mortality. Randomization was concealed, and patients were allocated to receive, for seven days, either an EPA/GLA diet or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous control diet not enhanced with lipids. Patients were continuously tube-fed at a minimum of 75% of basal energy expenditure × 1.3. To evaluate the progression to severe sepsis and/or septic shock, daily screening for individual organ failure was performed. All clinical outcomes were recorded during a 28-day follow-up period. A total of 115 patients in the early stages of sepsis requiring EN were included, among whom 106 were considered evaluable. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis demonstrated that patients fed the EPA/GLA diet developed less severe sepsis and/or septic shock than patients fed the control diet (26.3% versus 50%, respectively; P = 0.0259), with similar results observed for the evaluable patients (26.4% versus 50.9% respectively; P = 0.0217). The ITT analysis demonstrated that patients in the study group developed cardiovascular failure (36.2% versus 21%, respectively; P = 0.0381) and respiratory failure (39.6% versus 24.6%, respectively; P = 0.0362) less often than the control group. Similarly, when considering only the evaluable patients, fewer patients developed cardiovascular failure (20.7% versus 37.7%, respectively; P = 0.03) and respiratory failure (26.4% versus 39.6%, respectively; P = 0.04). The percentage of patients fed the EPA/GLA diet requiring invasive mechanical ventilation was reduced compared with controls (ITT patients: 18.9% versus 33.9%, respectively; P = 0.394; evaluable patients: 17.5% versus 34.5%, respectively; P = 0.295). Patients nourished with the EPA/GLA diet remained in the ICU fewer days than the control population (ITT patients: 21.1 ICU-free days versus 14.7 ICU-free days, respectively; P < 0.0001; evaluable patients: 20.8 ICU-free days versus 14.3 ICU-free days, respectively; P < 0.0001) and fewer days at the hospital (ITT patients: 19.5 hospital-free days versus 10.3 hospital-free days, respectively; P < 0.0001; evaluable patients: 19.1 hospital-free days versus 10.2 hospital-free days, respectively; P < 0.001) (all numbers expressed as means). No significant differences in 28-day all-cause mortality were observed (ITT patients: 26.2% EPA/GLA diet versus 27.6% control diet, respectively; P = 0.72; evaluable: 26.4 EPA/GLA diet versus 30.18 control diet, respectively; P = 0.79). These data suggest that EPA/GLA may play a beneficial role in the treatment of enterally fed patients in the early stages of sepsis without associated organ dysfunction by contributing to slowing the progression of sepsis-related organ dysfunction, especially with regard to cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877.Critical care (London, England) 06/2011; 15(3):R144. DOI:10.1186/cc10267 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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- "The majority of early LEs, which were first included in PN during the 1960s, were derived from soybean oil, which contains a high concentration of both LA and ALA [21, 22, 33]. These early LEs were demonstrated to efficiently deliver nonglucose energy, thereby reducing the adverse effects associated with intake of high dextrose concentrations . "
ABSTRACT: Energy deficit is a common and serious problem in intensive care units and is associated with increased rates of complications, length of stay, and mortality. Parenteral nutrition (PN), either alone or in combination with enteral nutrition, can improve nutrient delivery to critically ill patients. Lipids provide a key source of calories within PN formulations, preventing or correcting energy deficits and improving outcomes. In this article, we review the role of parenteral lipid emulsions (LEs) in the management of critically ill patients and highlight important biologic activities associated with lipids. Soybean-oil-based LEs with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the first widely used formulations in the intensive care setting. However, they may be associated with increased rates of infection and lipid peroxidation, which can exacerbate oxidative stress. More recently developed parenteral LEs employ partial substitution of soybean oil with oils providing medium-chain triglycerides, omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids or omega-3 PUFA. Many of these LEs have demonstrated reduced effects on oxidative stress, immune responses, and inflammation. However, the effects of these LEs on clinical outcomes have not been extensively evaluated. Ongoing research using adequately designed and well-controlled studies that characterize the biologic properties of LEs should assist clinicians in selecting LEs within the critical care setting. Prescription of PN containing LEs should be based on available clinical data, while considering the individual patient's physiologic profile and therapeutic requirements.Intensive Care Medicine 05/2010; 36(5):735-49. DOI:10.1007/s00134-009-1744-5 · 7.21 Impact Factor