The aim of the study was to explore whether expression of proliferation and hypoxia-related proteins differs in the central parts and the invasive front in endometrial carcinomas. Proliferation-associated proteins Ki67 and cyclin A; cell cycle regulators p16, p21, p53, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cdk2; and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and its downstream factors glucose transporter 1, carbonic anhydrase IX, and vascular endothelial growth factor were immunohistochemically stained in paraffin-embedded specimens from endometrioid (n = 33), mucinous (n = 1), and serous (n = 5) endometrial carcinomas. The percentages of positive cells at the invasive front and central tumor parts were scored and compared. Ki67 (P < .001), cyclin E (P = .018), p16 (P = .003), and cdk2 (.001) were expressed higher at the invasive front than centrally (Wilcoxon signed ranks test). Higher expression of these antigens at the invasive front was seen in 31 of 38 cases for Ki67, in 16 of 39 cases for cyclin E, in 15 of 39 cases for cdk2, and in 11 of 39 cases for p16. The other cell cycle proteins and the hypoxia-related factors did not show significant differences in expression between the central parts and the invasive front. Endometrial carcinomas clearly show an invasive front that is characterized by higher proliferation and progressive derailment of the cell cycle regulators cyclin E, p16, and cdk2, but not by an increased hypoxic response.
"Staining, using monoclonal mouse anti-HIF-1a (clone 54, dilution, 1:50; BD Transduction Laboratories, San Diego, CA), was performed as described previously (Bos et al. 2003). Polyclonal goat anti-VEGF (dilution, 1:50; R and D Systems, Abingdon, UK), polyclonal rabbit anti- GLUT-1 (dilution, 1:200; Dako, Glostrup, Denmark), and polyclonal rabbit anti-CAIX (dilution, 1:1000; Novus, Littleton, CO) were used as decribed by Horrée et al. (2007a,b). Sections were counterstained with hematoxylin . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A unique feature of the retina is the presence of photoreceptors, which require an enormous amount of oxygen for the conversion of light to an electrical signal. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcription factor that is the master regulator of cellular adaptation to low oxygen tension. Only in hypoxic conditions is HIF-1alpha protein stabilized and translocated to the nucleus, where it induces transcription of target genes involved in oxygen delivery and energy metabolism. We hypothesized that HIF-1alpha is constitutively stabilized and active in the normal human retina. We investigated the cellular distribution of HIF-1alpha and the expression of its downstream targets, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in the retina of normal rats and human donor eyes. Both human and rat retinas displayed prominent staining of HIF-1alpha in nuclei of most cell types in inner and outer nuclear layers and the ganglion cell layer, a cellular distribution pattern which was confirmed in human retina by immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. A negative correlation was found between HIF-1alpha protein levels and postmortem times. In human retina, staining of VEGF, GLUT-1, and CAIX was found. Our observations indicate that active HIF-1 signaling occurs constitutively in the normal human and rat retina, suggesting that HIF-1 has a physiological role in the retina.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 11/2009; 58(3):247-54. DOI:10.1369/jhc.2009.953786 · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bicarbonate is important for pHi control in cardiac cells. It is a major part of the intracellular buffer apparatus, it is a substrate for sarcolemmal acid-equivalent transporters that regulate intracellular pH, and it contributes to the pHo sensitivity of steady-state pHi, a phenomenon that may form part of a whole-body response to acid/base disturbances. Both bicarbonate and H+/OH- transporters participate in the sarcolemmal regulation of pHi, namely Na(+)-HCO3-cotransport (NBC), Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange (i.e., anion exchange, AE), Na(+)-H+ exchange (NHE), and Cl(-)-OH- exchange (CHE). These transporters are coupled functionally through changes of pHi, while pHi is linked to [Ca2+]i through secondary changes in [Na+] mediated by NBC and NHE. Via such coupling, decreases of pHo and pHi can ultimately lead to an elevation of [Ca2+]i, thereby influencing cardiac contractility and electrical rhythm. Bicarbonate is also an essential component of an intracellular carbonic buffer shuttle that diffusively couples cytoplasmic pH to the sarcolemma and minimises the formation of intracellular pH microdomains. The importance of bicarbonate is closely linked to the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). Without CA activity, intracellular bicarbonate-dependent buffering, membrane bicarbonate transport, and the carbonic shuttle are severely compromised. There is a functional partnership between CA and HCO3- transport. Based on our observations on intracellular acid mobility, we propose that one physiological role for CA is to act as a pH-coupling protein, linking bulk pH to the allosteric H+ control sites on sarcolemmal acid/base transporters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin D1 is integral for the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle as it regulates cellular proliferation. A polymorphism in cyclin D1, 870 G>A, causes overexpression and supports uncontrollable cellular growth. This polymorphism has been associated with an increased risk of developing many cancers, including endometrial cancer.
The 870 G>A polymorphisms (rs605965) in the cyclin D1 gene was genotyped in an Australian endometrial cancer case-control population including 191 cases and 291 controls using real-time PCR analysis. Genotype analysis was performed using chi-squared (chi2) statistics and odds ratios were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential endometrial cancer risk factors.
Women homozygous for the variant cyclin D1 870 AA genotype showed a trend for an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer compared to those with the wild-type GG genotype, however this result was not statistically significant (OR 1.692 95% CI (0.939-3.049), p = 0.080). Moreover, the 870 G>A polymorphism was significantly associated with family history of colorectal cancer. Endometrial cancer patients with the homozygous variant AA genotype had a higher frequency of family members with colorectal cancer in comparison to endometrial cancer patients with the GG and combination of GG and GA genotypes (GG versus AA; OR 2.951, 95% CI (1.026-8.491), p = 0.045, and GG+GA versus AA; OR 2.265, 95% CI (1.048-4.894), p = 0.038, respectively).
These results suggest that the cyclin D1 870 G>A polymorphism is possibly involved in the development of endometrial cancer. A more complex relationship was observed between this polymorphism and familial colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer 10/2008; 8(1):272. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-8-272 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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