Municipal solid waste management in Thailand and disposal emission inventory

Department of Environmental Engineering and Management (EEM), Asian Institute of Technology, Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.68). 01/2008; 135(1-3):13-20. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-007-9707-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation along with the high fraction of organic waste and a common disposal of open dumping is the current scenario in many areas in Thailand. As a response to this problem, the country's Pollution Control Department (PCD) aims to reduce the MSW generation rate to less than 1 kg/capita/day, increase the collection efficiency, and improve the recovery of recyclables. For many years, more than 60% of the solid waste disposal system in Thailand has been carried out by open dumping. According to the survey conducted by this study, in 2004 there were 425 disposal sites (95 landfills; 330 open dumps) in Thailand and an estimated methane emission of 115.4 Gg/year was generated based on this practice. It has been estimated that the anticipated methane emission in Thailand will rise from 115.4 Gg/year to 118.5 Gg/year if the largest open dumpsites in provinces with no existing landfill are upgraded to sanitary landfill; and it will increase to 193.5 Gg/year if the existing sanitary landfill is upgraded to integrated waste management facilities. Moreover, Bangkok metropolitan have the highest methane emission (54.83 Gg/year) among all the regions in Thailand. The methane emission forecast of 339 Gg/year by 2020 (based on LandGEM methodology) provides a stimulus to create a comprehensive plan to capture and utilize methane as an energy source.

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    ABSTRACT: Solid waste management and disposal are a global challenge. Also, in spite of rapid urbanization over recent decades, about 47 % (3.31 billion) of the world's population and 31 % (23.59 million) of Iran's population are still living in rural areas. Nevertheless, survey on characterization, quantification, and management of rural communities' household solid waste is rare in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, determining the quantity and quality (composition) of household solid waste of rural communities in the northwest of Iran was the main objective of the present work. The result showed that the average daily per capita of household waste generation was 0.259 kg/cap-day. About 50.98 % of total generated waste in the studied villages was organic and food waste, while paper and cardboard, plastics, metals, rubber, textiles , glass, woods, and other waste materials constituted 6.07, 13.58, 0.47, 1.57, 12.53, 2.09, 0.44, and 12.27 %, respectively. Bulk density of the waste was determined as 211.31 kg/m 3. In addition, moisture content and chemical characteristics (food and organic fraction) of the generated waste including the amount of carbon, nitrogen, phosphor, and ash were 57.05, 54.02, 1.74, 0.34, and 34.07 %, respectively. According to the results of this study and the survey in the available related literature, it could be concluded that solid waste generation rates in rural communities are less than that in urban areas and the composition and density of generated waste vary not only between rural and urban areas, but also between different rural communities with
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    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 12/2011; 10(81). DOI:10.5897/AJB11.2752 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal is the most popular method for MSW in least developed countries together with developing countries as this is cheap and requires less professional skills. It contributes to 3% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. GHG emission in MSW disposal site (MSWDS) is dependent on the characteristics and disposal method of MSW. GHG emission from MSWDS was investigated and compared at two locations in Lao PDR, Savannakhet (SVK) as representative of special economic zone and, Champasak (CPS) as representative of agriculture producer and local trading hub in southern region. International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 model was used to estimate the potential emission of GHG from MSWDS. The MSW data used in this study were based on secondary data from Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) report 2012. Only methane (CH 4) was considered in this study. MSWDS at these two locations are simple and unmanaged. Results of study indicated that the composition of waste and type of MSWDS influences potential of CH 4 emission. The potential of CH 4 emission in CPS was higher compared to SVK as CPS contained 8% more biodegradable material than SVK. Total CH 4 emission from existing MSW management in SVK and CPS were 326 Gg/year and 241 Gg/year, respectively. Four alternative scenarios are developed considering environmental protection and GHG reduction. Scenario S4, which assumes 50% of compostable and recyclable materials sent to composting and recycling process, could reduce approximately 43-44% of total CH 4 emission compared to baseline scenario S0. Considering the biodegradable composition in SVK and CPS, composting process is the most applicable approach that needs to be integrated in MSW management. This will reduce the amount of waste that is disposed on landfill, reduce GHG emission and protect the environment.
    The 6th ACEC and The 6th AEEC, Bangkok, Thailand; 11/2013

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