Fifteen-year follow-up of 92 hospitalized adults with Down's syndrome: incidence of cognitive decline, its relationship to age and neuropathology.
ABSTRACT The clinical and neuropathological features associated with dementia in Down's syndrome (DS) are not well established. Aims To examine clinico-pathological correlations and the incidence of cognitive decline in a cohort of adults with DS.
A total of 92 hospitalized persons with DS were followed up from 1985 to December 2000. At outset, 87 participants were dementia-free, with a median age of 38 years. Assessments included the Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test (PCFT) and the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS), to measure cognitive and behavioural deterioration. Dementia was diagnosed from case records and caregivers' reports.
Eighteen (21%) patients developed dementia during follow-up, with a median age of onset 55.5 years (range 45-74). The PCFT demonstrated cognitive decline among those with a less severe intellectual disability (mild and moderate) but not among the profoundly disabled people (severe and profound). Clinical dementia was associated with neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease, and correlated with neocortical neurofibrillary tangle densities. At the age of 60 years and above, a little more than 50% of patients still alive had clinical evidence of dementia.
Clinical dementia associated with measurable cognitive and functional decline is frequent in people with DS after middle age, and can be readily diagnosed among less severely intellectually disabled persons using measures of cognitive function such as the PCFT and behavioural scales such as the ABS. In the more profoundly disabled people, the diagnosis of dementia is facilitated by the use of behavioural and neurological criteria. In this study, the largest prospective DS series including neuropathology on deceased patients, the density of neurofibrillary tangles related more closely to the dementia of DS than senile plaques. In people with DS surviving to middle and old age, the development of dementia of Alzheimer type is frequent but not inevitable, and some people with DS reach old age without clinical features of dementia.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents at an early age in people with Down syndrome (DS). The trisomy 21 in DS provides an opportunity to study the effect of duplicated genes in AD. APP and BACE2 are 2 genes located in chromosome 21 and related to AD. We looked into our cohort of 67 DS cases with dementia for the effect of BACE2 variants in age of onset of dementia. Of the 83 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 6 were associated with age of onset and another 8 SNPs were borderline associated. Our finding also replicated a previous study showing association of rs2252576 with AD.Neurobiology of aging 12/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
Article: Epigenomics of Alzheimer’s Disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a large and growing public health problem. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β peptides and abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins that are associated with cognitive decline and dementia. Much has been learned about the genomics of AD from linkage analyses and more recently, genome-wide association studies. Several but not all aspects of the genomic landscape are involved in amyloid-β metabolism. The moderate concordance of disease among twins suggests other factors, potentially epigenomic factors, are related to AD. We are at the earliest stages of examining the relation of the epigenome to the clinical and pathologic phenotypes that characterize AD. Our literature review suggests that there is some evidence of age-related changes in human brain methylation. Unfortunately, studies of AD have been relatively small with limited coverage of methylation sites and microRNA, let alone other epigenomic marks. We are in the midst of two large studies of human brains including coverage of more than 420,000 autosomal cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CGs) with the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450K BeadArray, and histone acetylation with chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing. We present descriptive data to help inform other researchers what to expect from these approaches in order to better design and power their studies. We then discuss future directions to inform on the epigenomic architecture of AD.Translational Research 05/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: At every point in the lifespan, the brain balances malleable processes representing neural plasticity that promote change with homeostatic processes that promote stability. Whether a child develops typically or with brain injury, his or her neural and behavioral outcome is constructed through transactions between plastic and homeostatic processes and the environment. In clinical research with children in whom the developing brain has been malformed or injured, behavioral outcomes provide an index of the result of plasticity, homeostasis, and environmental transactions. When should we assess outcome in relation to age at brain insult, time since brain insult, and age of the child at testing? What should we measure? Functions involving reacting to the past and predicting the future, as well as social-affective skills, are important. How should we assess outcome? Information from performance variability, direct measures and informants, overt and covert measures, and laboratory and ecological measures should be considered. In whom are we assessing outcome? Assessment should be cognizant of individual differences in gene, socio-economic status (SES), parenting, nutrition, and interpersonal supports, which are moderators that interact with other factors influencing functional outcome.Neuropsychology Review 05/2014; · 5.40 Impact Factor