Aspirin and cognitive function.

BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 16.38). 06/2007; 334(7601):961-2. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39204.473252.80
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Benefit has not yet been shown, but may be due to difficulties in selecting the right outcome measure

Download full-text


Available from: Lawrence Whalley, Dec 09, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal studies of neuropsychological changes in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer disease (AD) have yielded mixed results. Although some studies report tests of episodic memory, others report tests of attention and executive functions as reliable predictors of subsequent AD. Following theoretical models of neuropsychological processes before AD onset, the authors examined the predictive value of attention and executive function in the preclinical phase of AD in old age. Authors studied the cognitive performance of 187 initially normal participants of the Berlin Aging Study, a community-based representative sample of Berlin citizens age 70 to 103, over a period of 4 years. Tests of attention and executive function (Digit Letter Test, Trailmaking Part B Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, and Identical Pictures Test) and of learning and recall functions (Activity Recall, Memory for Text, and Paired-Associate Learning) were administered at baseline. Diagnosis of AD was made according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria (probable AD). Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and predictive value of the neuropsychological tests at baseline for incident AD after 4 years. After 4 years, 15 participants had developed AD. Tests of attention and executive function discriminated best between nonconverters and incident AD cases. A similar pattern was found in survival analyses; attention and executive function tests, together with tests of learning and recall, significantly predicted incident AD over and above age, gender, and education. These results support theoretical models of attention and executive function in the preclinical phase of AD in old age.
    American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 03/2005; 13(2):134-41. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajgp.13.2.134 · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the neurobiology of dementias, but comprehensive causal models are not available. Genetic and environmental factors probably interact to determine vulnerability to the dementias. The life-course approach to age-related diseases, when systematically applied to the dementias, provides opportunities to identify the nature and timing of environmental contributions. We discuss the relevance of the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis to the dementias. Associations between the dementias (most often described as Alzheimer's disease) and ischaemic heart disease, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are set against associations between dementias and childhood intelligence, low educational attainments, low socioeconomic status, occupation, and lifetime dietary history. Biological mechanisms that explain how fetal development might influence the risk of adult disease may be relevant to many age-related diseases including the dementias and, possibly, to the biology of ageing.
    The Lancet Neurology 02/2006; 5(1):87-96. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70286-6 · 21.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis of 153 studies with 15,990 participants was conducted to compare the magnitude of deficits upon tests of phonemic and semantic fluency for patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) relative to healthy controls. As has been found for patients with focal temporal cortical lesions (but not for patients with focal frontal cortical lesions), DAT patients were significantly more impaired on tests of semantic relative to phonemic fluency (r=0.73 and 0.57, respectively). Thus, since phonemic and semantic fluency are considered to impose comparable demands upon executive control processes such as effortful retrieval, but the latter is relatively more dependent upon the integrity of semantic memory, these results suggest that the semantic memory deficit in DAT reflects a degradation of the semantic store. Also supporting this conclusion, confrontation naming, a measure of semantic memory that imposes only minimal demands upon effortful retrieval, was significantly more impaired than phonemic fluency (r=0.60 versus 0.55, respectively). However, since semantic fluency was also significantly more impaired than confrontation naming (r=0.73 versus 0.61), deficits in semantic memory and effortful retrieval may be additive. Semantic, but not phonemic fluency, was significantly more impaired than measures of verbal intelligence and psychomotor speed. Thus, the semantic memory deficit in DAT qualifies as a differential deficit, but executive dysfunction as indexed by phonemic fluency does not constitute an additional isolated feature of the disorder. Dementia severity was not significantly related to the relative magnitude of deficits upon phonemic and semantic fluency.
    Neuropsychologia 02/2004; 42(9):1212-22. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.02.001 · 3.45 Impact Factor
Show more