Eosinophilic Lung Diseases: A Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Overview1
ABSTRACT Eosinophilic lung diseases are a diverse group of pulmonary disorders associated with peripheral or tissue eosinophilia. They are classified as eosinophilic lung diseases of unknown cause (simple pulmonary eosinophilia [SPE], acute eosinophilic pneumonia [AEP], chronic eosinophilic pneumonia [CEP], idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome [IHS]), eosinophilic lung diseases of known cause (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis [ABPA], bronchocentric granulomatosis [BG], parasitic infections, drug reactions), and eosinophilic vasculitis (allergic angiitis, granulomatosis [Churg-Strauss syndrome]). The percentages of eosinophils in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are essential parts of the evaluation. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrates a more characteristic pattern and distribution of parenchymal opacities than does conventional chest radiography. At CT, SPE and IHS are characterized by single or multiple nodules with a surrounding ground-glass-opacity halo, AEP mimics radiologically hydrostatic pulmonary edema, and CEP is characterized by nonsegmental airspace consolidations with peripheral predominance. ABPA manifests with bilateral central bronchiectasis with or without mucoid impaction. The CT manifestations of BG are nonspecific and consist of a focal mass or lobar consolidation with atelectasis. The most common CT findings in Churg-Strauss syndrome include sub-pleural consolidation with lobular distribution, centrilobular nodules, bronchial wall thickening, and interlobular septal thickening. The integration of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings facilitates the initial and differential diagnoses of various eosinophilic lung diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Although advances in antineoplastic therapy have considerably improved the survival of patients with hematological malignancies, current treatment modalities increase the risk of late complications. Several forms of chronic pulmonary dysfunction due to infectious or noninfectious causes commonly occur in the months to years after chemo-radiotherapy and can be fatal or result in long-term morbidity. The judicious use of prophylactic antimicrobial agents has tipped the balance toward noninfectious etiologies. Hence, while opportunistic infections still contribute to chronic lung disease, late sequelae resulting from antineoplastic therapy have been identified and reported. Patients who proceed to receive hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT) are particularly prone to developing lung complications. Pulmonary dysfunction occurring after HSCT may manifest with obstructive or restrictive pulmonary mechanics and may range in severity from subtle, subclinical functional changes to frank respiratory failure. Insights generated using animal models suggest that the immunologic mechanisms contributing to lung inflammation after HSCT may be similar to those responsible for graft-versus host disease. In sum, chronic fibrotic pulmonary dysfunction is a frequent and significant complication facing survivors of hematologic malignancies and their practitioners. The high incidence and suboptimal response to current support care and immunosuppressive therapy underscore the need for heightened awareness and continued research in this area.
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ABSTRACT: Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare disorder characte- rized by hypereosinophilia and systemic vasculitis which usually occurs in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. We, here, presented a case with Churg-Strauss syndrome with no extra-pulmonary presentation despite involvement in peripheral nervous system as in the form of peripheral mono- neuropathy in femoral nerve. (Asthma Allergy Immunol 2009;7:74-78)
Article: II IMAGING OF LUNG DISEASE