Animal models in type 2 diabetes research: an overview.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Mohali, India.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research (Impact Factor: 2.06). 04/2007; 125(3):451-72.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes is a complex and heterogeneous disorder presently affecting more than 100 million people worldwide and causing serious socio-economic problems. Appropriate experimental models are essential tools for understanding the pathogenesis, complications, and genetic or environmental influences that increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and testing of various therapeutic agents. The animal models of type 2 diabetes can be obtained either spontaneously or induced by chemicals or dietary or surgical manipulations and/or by combination thereof. In recent years, large number of new genetically modified animal models including transgenic, generalized knock-out and tissue-specific knockout mice have been engineered for the study of diabetes. This review gives an overview on the animal models of type 2 diabetes with reference to their origin/source, characteristic features, underlying causes/mechanism(s), advantages and disadvantages to the investigators in diabetes research. In addition, it especially describes the appropriate selection and usefulness of different animal models in preclinical testing of various new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes is on a steady increase worldwide and it is now identified as one of the main threats to human health in the 21(st) century. In Nigeria, the use of herbal medicine alone or alongside prescription drugs for its management is quite common. We hereby carry out a review of medicinal plants traditionally used for diabetes management in Nigeria. Based on the available evidence on the species' pharmacology and safety, we highlight ways in which their therapeutic potential can be properly harnessed for possible integration into the country's healthcare system.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology. 06/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To collect and document information on anti-diabetic plants traditionally used in the treating of diabetes in Urmia at Northwest Iran because ethnomedicines are considered as valuable sources to find new potential drugs. Methods: We used the method of direct observation and interview (35 traditional healers) along with gathering herbarium specimens mentioned plants in site. Results: There were 30 medicinal plants from 17 families for the treatment of diabetes. The family with most plants was Lamiaceae (20%). Leaves (20%) are often used and its form is decoction (70%). It was also found that Citrullus colocynthis has the most frequency of use among traditional healers. Conclusions: Furthermore, base on current findings many of the mentioned plants have potential active ingredients to influence diabetes.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 10/2014; 7:348-354. · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a documented risk factor for melioidosis, a tropical infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. The increased susceptibility of diabetic individuals to infections with other pathogens has been associated with immune dysregulation. However, the impact of diabetes on the functional responses of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages during B. pseudomallei infection has not been investigated. This study compared the responses of macrophages and DC towards B. pseudomallei using bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) and peritoneal elicited macrophages (PEM) isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice exhibiting hyperglycaemia for 9 days (acute) or 70 days (chronic) and age-matched nondiabetic C57BL/6 mice. Following coincubation of BMDC and PEM with a highly virulent B. pseudomallei isolate, maturation, bacterial internalization plus intracellular survival and cytokine gene expression profiles were assessed. No significant differences in functional responses of BMDC or PEM isolated from acute diabetic and nondiabetic mice were observed. However, significant differences in BMDC and PEM function were observed when chronic diabetic and nondiabetic mice were compared. This study demonstrates that diabetic mice with extended periods of uncontrolled hyperglycaemia have impaired DC and macrophage function towards B. pseudomallei, which may contribute to the high susceptibility observed in clinical practice.
    FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 03/2011; 61(2):218-27. · 2.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 15, 2014