Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review.

Musgrave Park Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
British journal of sports medicine (Impact Factor: 4.17). 11/2007; 41(10):627-38. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.035691
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 papers found 12 studies eligible for inclusion. It can be concluded that injury prevention strategies that focus on preseason conditioning, functional training, education, balance and sport-specific skills, which should be continued throughout the sporting season, are effective. The evidence for the effectiveness of protective equipment in injury prevention is inconclusive and requires further assessment.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECT Action motorsports, including motocross, have been gaining popularity among children and adolescents, raising concerns for increased risk of concussions in participating youth. The authors undertook this study to test the following hypotheses: 1) that there is a high rate of concussion symptoms associated with a number of preventable or adjustable risk factors, and 2) that a high percentage of these symptoms are not be reported to adults and medical personnel. METHODS The authors identified all motocross riders under the age of 18 at a regional racetrack during the riding season between May and October 2010. The participants completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic characteristics and variables associated with motocross. The questionnaire results were compared with the incidence of self-reported concussion symptoms. RESULTS Two hundred two riders were identified who met the criteria for participation in the study, and 139 of them completed the study questionnaire. Of these 139 riders, 67 (48%) reported at least 1 concussion symptom during the season. The majority of riders (98%) reported "always" wearing a helmet, and 72% received professional help with fitting of their helmets. Proper helmet fitting was associated with a 41% decreased risk of concussion symptoms (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.44-0.81, p < 0.01). Sixty-six riders (47%) reported having received sponsor support for motocross participation. Sponsor support conferred a relative risk for concussion symptoms of 1.48 (95% CI 1.05-2.08, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Nearly half of all motocross competitors under the age of 18 reported concussion symptoms. Preventive measures are necessary to limit the negative impact from concussions. The risk of concussive injury can be decreased for pediatric motocross riders if they receive professional help with proper helmet fitting and through implementation of stricter guidelines regarding sponsorship.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 01/2015; DOI:10.3171/2014.11.PEDS14127 · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objetivo: Recopilar evidencia sobre los resultados de los programas de calentamiento neuromuscular estructurados sin equipo adicional como método de prevención de lesiones de no contacto en futbolistas jóvenes profesionales. Material y métodos: Se realizó durante marzo y abril de 2013 una búsqueda de literatura (PubMed, Biblioteca Cochrane Plus, The American Journal Sports of Medicine, The British Journal of Sports Medicine y el motor de búsqueda Trip Database). Resultados: Se obtuvieron, tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, un total de 6 estudios (3 ensayos clínicos, un estudio de cohortes y 2 revisiones sistemáticas). El programa «FIFA 11+» mostró una reducción de lesiones en un 33-57%, desgranándose en un 52% en rodilla, 22% en tobillo, 40% en síndrome de estrés medial tibial, 50% en muslo posterior y 21% en el anterior, y 12% en la zona inguinal. El programa «FIFA 11» mostró una reducción del 58% en esguinces de tobillo y del 27% en lesiones de LCA. Otros programas específicos de prevención de lesiones de LCA las redujeron en un 74% y «Knäkontroll, SISU Idrottsböcker©» en un 64%. El programa «HarmoKnee» redujo lesiones de rodilla en un 78%. Discusión: Se observaron varias debilidades metodológicas, pero parece que existe la tendencia a que un calentamiento que contenga como base estiramientos, fortalecimiento y ejercicios de equilibrio, realizado durante más de tres meses y de manera regular podría prevenir lesiones. Conclusiones: El programa «FIFA 11+» podría ser una buena medida preventiva de lesiones aplicando su programa de calentamiento estructurado. A pesar de ello, nuevos estudios mejor diseñados se requieren para poder valorar bien esta evidencia.
    Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología 11/2014; 58(6):336-342. DOI:10.1016/j.recot.2014.05.008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The promotion of sport and physical activity (PA) for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle, but being engaged in sport bears the risk of sustaining injuries. Injuries, in turn, can lead to a reduction in current and future involvement in PA and, therefore, may negatively affect future health as well as quality of life. Thus, sports injury prevention is of particular importance in youth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the effectiveness of exercise-based injury prevention programs in child and adolescent sport in general, and with respect to different characteristics of the target group, injury prevention program, and outcome variables. DATA SOURCES: An Internet-based literature search was conducted in six databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, SPORTDiscus) using the following search terms with Boolean conjunction: (sport injur* OR athletic injur* OR sport accident*) AND (prevent* OR prophylaxis OR avoidance) AND (child* OR adolescent OR youth). STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials and controlled intervention studies in organized sport, published in English in a peer-reviewed journal, analyzing the effects of an exercise-based injury prevention program in athletes younger than 19 years of age. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers evaluated eligibility and methodological quality. Main outcome extracted was the rate ratio (RR). Statistical analyses were conducted using the inverse-variance random effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-one trials, conducted on a total of 27,561 athletes (median age 16.7 years [range 10.7-17.8]), were included. The overall RR was 0.54 (95 % CI 0.45-0.67) [p < 0.001]. Girls profited more from injury prevention than boys (p = 0.05). Both prevention programs with a focus on specific injuries (RR 0.48 [95 % CI 0.37-0.63]) and those aiming at all injuries (RR 0.62 [95 % CI 0.48-0.81]) showed significant reduction effects. Pre-season and in-season interventions were similarly beneficial (p = 0.93). Studies on programs that include jumping/plyometric exercises showed a significant better (p = 0.002) injury preventive effect (RR 0.45 [95 % CI 0.35-0.57], Z = 6.35, p < 0.001) than studies without such exercises (RR 0.74 [95 % CI 0.61-0.90], Z = 3.03, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The results provide good evidence and clearly demonstrate beneficial effects of exercise-based injury prevention programs in youth sports as they can result in statistically significant and practically relevant injury reduction. In particular, multimodal programs including jumping/plyometric exercises can be recommended. However, there is a considerable lack of data for children (under 14 years of age) and for individual sports in general. Future research should include these groups and focus on the effect of specific exercises and compliance.
    Sports Medicine 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0234-2 · 5.32 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 22, 2014