Article

Differential regulation and properties of MAPKs.

Department of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.56). 06/2007; 26(22):3100-12. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1210392
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse cellular programs including embryogenesis, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis based on cues derived from the cell surface and the metabolic state and environment of the cell. In mammals, there are more than a dozen MAPK genes. The best known are the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK(1-3)) and p38(alpha, beta, gamma and delta) families. ERK3, ERK5 and ERK7 are other MAPKs that have distinct regulation and functions. MAPK cascades consist of a core of three protein kinases. Despite the apparently simple architecture of this pathway, these enzymes are capable of responding to a bewildering number of stimuli to produce exquisitely specific cellular outcomes. These responses depend on the kinetics of their activation and inactivation, the subcellular localization of the kinases, the complexes in which they act, and the availability of substrates. Fine-tuning of cascade activity can occur through modulatory inputs to cascade component from the primary kinases to the scaffolding accessory proteins. Here, we describe some of the properties of the three major MAPK pathways and discuss how these properties govern pathway regulation and activity.

0 Followers
 · 
133 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway plays a pivotal role in the spatial and temporal regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. By controlling the correct maturation of developing tissues and ensuring attainment of the correct size, position and the presence of fully functioning cellular structures, the Hh plays a pivotal role in development. Conversely aberrant Hh signalling is involved in Gorlin syndrome, basal cell carcinoma (the most common cancer in the world), and more than one third of all human medulloblastoma cases. In all of these cases, it is believed that deregulated Hh signalling leads to increased cell proliferation and tumour formation. Inhibition of the Hedgehog signalling pathway, is a recently validated anti-cancer drug target, with vismodegib (Erivedge™), approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult basal cell carcinoma. In this perspective we outline the current state of Hh pathway inhibitors with a particular focus on potential limitations of upstream Hh pathway inhibition in relation to resistance mutations and crosstalk pathways. Together, these limitations indicate that inhibition of downstream components, specifically the Gli family of transcription factors, may represent a next generation approach to suppress tumours associated with aberrant Hh pathway signalling.
    Medicinal Chemistry Communication 01/2014; 5(2):117. DOI:10.1039/c3md00334e · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase-kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 "docking" groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they "readjust," whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1417571112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. It is associated with a markedly increased risk of premature death due to embolic stroke and also complicates co-existing cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. The prevalence of AF increases dramatically with age, and aging has been shown to be an independent risk of AF. Due to an aging population in the world, a growing body of AF patients are suffering a diminished quality of life and causing an associated economic burden. However, effective pharmacologic treatments and prevention strategies are lacking due to a poor understanding of the molecular and electrophysiologic mechanisms of AF in the failing and/or aged heart. Recent studies suggest that altered atrial calcium handling contributes to the onset and maintenance of AF. Here we review the role of stress-response kinases and calcium handling dysfunction in AF genesis in the aged and failing heart.
    Frontiers in Physiology 02/2015; 6:46. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2015.00046

Preview

Download
5 Downloads
Available from