Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by bone pain and fever, a course of exacerbations and remissions, and a frequent association with other inflammatory conditions. Because its etiology is largely unknown, the diagnosis is still based on clinical criteria; treatment is empiric and not always successful. The diagnosis is supported by the presence of osteolytic lesions with surrounding sclerosis apparent on radiographs, and silent asymptomatic lesions frequently appear on nuclear scans. The histologic findings in bone biopsies are nonspecific, showing inflammatory changes with granulocytic infiltration. Several observations suggest the contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. Indeed, mutations in LPIN2 cause a syndromic form of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis known as Majeed syndrome, while mutations in pstpip2 cause a murine form of the disorder. The roles played by LPIN2 and the human homolog of pstpip2, PSTPIP2, in the etiology of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis are uncertain but are currently being investigated. We emphasize the need to validate diagnostic clinical criteria and develop new pathogenesis-based targeted therapy.
"Ferguson et al. [24, 25] described homozygous mutations in the LPIN2 gene, causing a syndromic autosomal recessive form of CNO known as Majeed syndrome. The Majeed syndrome's classical triad includes early-onset CRMO, congenital dyserythropoietic anemia and a neutrophilic dermatosis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) with its most severe form chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a non-bacterial osteitis of yet unknown origin. Secondary to the absence of both high-titer autoantibodies and autoreactive T lymphocytes, and the association with other autoimmune diseases, it was recently reclassified as an autoinflammatory disorder of the musculoskeletal system. Since its etiology is largely unknown, the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, and treatment is empiric and not always successful. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of possible etiopathogenetic mechanisms in CNO.
International Journal of Rheumatology 05/2012; 2012(3):310206. DOI:10.1155/2012/310206
"Accordingly, CRMO syndrome is characterized by multiple foci of nonbacterial osteomyelitis appearing radiologically as a mixture of osteolytic/sclerotic lesions. It presents as bone pains with or without fever, has an unpredictable course alternating between exacerbations and spontaneous remission, and is frequently associated with other inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 13-year-old girl with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) who developed severe arthritis in four different joints within the first year from the onset of the disease. Her multiple vertebrae lesions showed significant amelioration after a 2-month treatment with prednisolone. In parallel, the initial severe symmetrical arthritis of both knees showing overt synovitis and joint effusion, in the absence of lesions in the metaphyses of the femur or the tibia, responded remarkably well in intra-articular triamcinolone hexacetonide injections. However, upon discontinuation of prednisolone, the patient developed severe arthritis of her right ankle and the proximal interphalangeal joint of her right middle finger. Thus, prednisolone was reinitiated combined with methotrexate, and the patient went into remission, which persists one year after prednisolone tapering. The appearance of arthritis in both knees in the absence of bone lesions and the emergence of severe arthritis of the ankle after remission of spinal bone lesions suggest that CRMO and juvenile idiopathic arthritis may coexist and be causally related.
"Moreover, Lpin1 loss of function is associated with severe metabolic abnormalities in the mouse strain with fatty liver dystrophy (fld) , which exhibits a dramatic reduction in fat pad mass, triglyceride-filled fatty liver, insulin resistance and a peripheral neuropathy due to axonal demyelination in consequence of PA accumulation        . Recently, it was demonstrated that the Majeed syndrome, an inflammatory disorder characterized by osteomyelitis, congenital dyserythropoietic anemia and cutaneous inflammation (for review  ), is associated with mutations in the LPIN2 locus . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipins constitute a novel family of Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatidate phosphatases that catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to yield diacylglycerol, an important intermediate in lipid metabolism and cell signaling. Whereas a single lipin is detected in less complex organisms, in mammals there are distinct lipin isoforms and paralogs that are differentially expressed among tissues. Compatible with organism tissue complexity, we show that the single Drosophila Lpin1 ortholog (CG8709, here named DmLpin) expresses at least three isoforms (DmLpinA, DmLpinK and DmLpinJ) in a temporal and spatially regulated manner. The highest levels of lipin in the fat body, where DmLpinA and DmLpinK are expressed, correlate with the highest levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) measured in this tissue. DmLpinK is the most abundant isoform in the central nervous system, where TAG levels are significantly lower than in the fat body. In the testis, where TAG levels are even lower, DmLpinJ is the predominant isoform. Together, these data suggest that DmLpinA might be the isoform that is mainly involved in TAG production, and that DmLpinK and DmLpinJ could perform other cellular functions. In addition, we demonstrate by immunofluorescence that lipins are most strongly labeled in the perinuclear region of the fat body and ventral ganglion cells. In visceral muscles of the larval midgut and adult testis, lipins present a sarcomeric distribution. In the ovary chamber, the lipin signal is concentrated in the internal rim of the ring canal. These specific subcellular localizations of the Drosophila lipins provide the basis for future investigations on putative novel cellular functions of this protein family.
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