An activity, stability and selectivity comparison of propioin synthesis by thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes in a solid/gas bioreactor.
ABSTRACT Enzymatic carboligation in a solid/gas bioreactor represents a new challenge in biotechnology. In this paper, the continuous gas-phase production of propioin from two propanal molecules by using thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes was studied. Two enzymes were used, namely benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) from Pseudomonas fluorescens and benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD) from Pseudomonas putida. The enzymes are homologous and catalyze carboligase and carbolyase reactions in which no external cofactor regeneration is needed. The influence of water and substrate activity on the initial reaction rate and biocatalyst stability was investigated. An increase in water activity raised the initial reaction rates to the maximal values of 250 and 80 U g(-1) for BAL and BFD, respectively. The half-life showed the same trend with maximal values of 50 and 78 min for BAL and BFD, respectively. The increase in the half-life by increasing water activity was unexpected. It was also observed that BFD is more stable than BAL in the presence of the substrate propanal. Both enzymes showed substrate inhibition in the kinetic studies, and BAL was also deactivated during the reaction. Unexpectedly, the stereoselectivity of both enzymes (ee of 19 % for BAL and racemic mixture for BFD) was significantly impaired in the gas phase compared to the liquid phase.
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ABSTRACT: Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the enzymes. Lyophilization of the enzymes from buffer at pH 6.0 can provide an easy and effective way to stabilize lipases toward inactivation by acetaldehyde.BMC Biochemistry 02/2011; 12:10. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Benzaldehyde lyase is a versatile catalyst for the organic synthesis of enantiopure α-hydroxy ketones. In view of poor solubility and stability of many substrates and products and the prospect of downstream processing, supercritical fluids are explored as an alternative solvent in view of residual stability, activity, and selectivity. Four supercritical fluids were investigated: carbon dioxide, fluoroform, ethane, and sulphur hexafluoride. Water activity and enzyme preparation (pH of lyophilisation) showed to be the main influence parameters. Activity increased with increasing water activity but stability decreased. Furthermore, non-carbon dioxide supercritical fluids give better results in view of stability, activity, and enantioselectivity. Suprisingly, the enantioselectivity is heavily influenced by the reaction from almost racemic in sulphur hexafluoride with up to 90% enantiomeric excess.Journal of Supercritical Fluids The 11/2011; 62:173. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes are broadly distributed in all organisms, and they catalyse a broad range of C-C bond forming and breaking reactions. Enzymes belonging to the structural families of decarboxylases and transketolases have been particularly well investigated concerning their substrate range, mechanism of stereoselective carboligation and carbolyase reaction. Both structurally different enzyme families differ also in stereoselectivity: enzymes from the decarboxylase family are predominantly R-selective, whereas those from the transketolase family are S-selective. In recent years a key focus of our studies has been on stereoselective benzoin condensation-like 1,2-additions. Meanwhile, several S-selective variants of pyruvate decarboxylase, benzoylformate decarboxylase, and SEPHCHC-synthase (MenD) as well as R-selective transketolase variants were created that allow access to a broad range of enantiocomplementary α-hydroxyketones and α,α'-dihydroxyketones. This review covers recent studies and the mechanistic understanding of stereoselective C-C bond forming thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes, which has been guided by structure-function analyses based on mutagenesis studies and from influences of different substrates and organic cosolvents on stereoselectivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEBS Journal 08/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor