Weight change in the acute treatment of bipolar I disorder: A naturalistic observational study of psychiatric inpatients
ABSTRACT Bipolar patients have increased prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared with the general population. Recent increases in the use of atypical antipsychotics and combination therapies have led to growing concern about obesity and metabolic disturbances. We therefore evaluated weight change and its correlates during the treatment of acute mania in a closed-ward hospital setting.
We evaluated weight change over 4 weeks in 179 consecutive patients with bipolar I disorder presenting with acute manic symptoms.
Overall weight change was +2.7+/-3.0 kg (+4.6+/-5.2%). Whereas 24.6% of patients were obese at baseline, 36.3% were obese after 4 weeks. Duration of illness was correlated with weight change, but its effect was not robust. Baseline weight/BMI, sex, age of onset, and history of previous medication were not significantly correlated with weight changes. Patients prescribed olanzapine plus valproate showed the largest increase in weight (3.8+/-2.9 kg). Overall, patients on any kind of atypical antipsychotics showed greater weight gain than those on typical antipsychotics or without antipsychotics. Combination treatment with antipsychotics and mood stabilizer resulted in greater weight gain than monotherapy with an antipsychotic or mood stabilizer.
The short-term assessment (4 weeks) of weight change and the lack of variables previously reported to be related to weight gain, such as number of depressive episodes, warrant caution in the interpretation of our results.
Even during short period of acute treatment, bipolar patients showed significant weight gain and became obese in a closed-ward setting. Clinicians prescribing combination therapies should pay more attention to weight gain and obesity.
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ABSTRACT: This analysis was conducted to compare the effects of adjunctive ziprasidone or placebo on metabolic parameters among patients receiving maintenance treatment with lithium or valproate. We also tested whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other risk factors were associated with baseline characteristics and treatment response. In the stabilization phase (Phase 1), 584 bipolar I disorder (DSM-IV) patients received 2.5-4 months of open label ziprasidone (80-160 mg/d) plus lithium or valproic acid (ZIP+MS). Patients who achieved at least 8 weeks of clinical stability were subsequently randomized into Phase 2 to 6-months of double-blind treatment with ZIP+MS (n=127) vs. placebo+MS (n=113). At baseline of Phase 1, MetS was found in 111 participants (23%). Participants with MetS (vs. non-MetS participants) were more likely to be aged 40 years or older, had significantly more severe manic symptoms, higher abdominal obesity, and higher BMI. Increase in abdominal obesity was associated with lower manic symptom improvement (p<0.05, as assessed by MRS change score) during Phase 1, while symptom improvement differed across racial groups. In the Phase 2 double-blind phase, the ZIP+MS group had similar weight and metabolic profiles compared to the placebo+MS group across visits. These results corroborate existing findings on ziprasidone which exhibits a neutral weight and metabolic profile in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Our findings suggest that MetS is highly prevalent in patients with bipolar disorder, may be associated with greater manic symptom severity, and may predict treatment outcomes.European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2011; 22(2):123-31. DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.06.005 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our review describes potential weight-altering effects of psychotropic medications (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, mood stabilizers, sedative-hypnotics, medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and other psychotropic medications) and offers guidance on switching a medication if its weight-altering effect becomes problematic. For second-generation antipsychotics, the risk of weight gain is high with clozapine and olanzapine, low with amisulpride, aripiprazole, and ziprasidone, and medium with other second-generation antipsychotics. Switching from a high-risk antipsychotic to a low-risk antipsychotic usually mitigates or reverses weight gain. For second-generation antidepressants, there may be modest weight loss with bupropion and modest weight gain with mirtazapine and paroxetine. Other second-generation antidepressants are weight neutral but individual variations can occur. If significant change in weight occurs, switching to or adding a low-risk second-generation antidepressant should be considered. Mood stabilizers include lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, and most second-generation antipsychotics. Risk of weight gain is high with lithium and valproate and low with carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and oxcarbazepine. Given the complexity of bipolar disorder and its management, a switch of a mood stabilizer would be best done by a psychiatrist. Benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine and melatonergic hypnotics, doxepin, and trazodone are weight neutral. Diphenhydramine may cause weight-gain and can be switched to a weight-neutral hypnotic if needed. Stimulants can cause varying degrees of weight loss and switching to atomoxetine or bupropion may reverse this problem. If that fails, switching to clonidine or guanfacine can be tried. Switching must be evidence-based and take into account status of the condition being treated, efficacy, side effect profile, potential drug-drug interactions, required laboratory monitoring and cost of the drug(s) being considered, and patient's pregnancy status or plan. Non-pharmacological interventions both for mental disorders and overweight/obesity must be fully availed.Postgraduate Medicine 09/2013; 125(5):117-129. DOI:10.3810/pgm.2013.09.2706 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone combined with divalproex to determine the relationship between the initial dose of ziprasidone and the treatment effect among Korean patients with acute bipolar manic or mixed disorders. This study was a 6-week, open-label, prospective investigation of Korean patients with an acute manic or mixed episode of bipolar disorder. Sixty-five patients were recruited. The patients were categorized based on the initial dose of ziprasidone as follows: low (20-79 mg/day) and standard (80 mg/day). Ziprasidone was given in combination with divalproex in flexible doses, according to the clinical response and tolerability. The response and remission rates were significantly higher in the standard-dose group than the low-dose group. The combination of ziprasidone and divalproex was well-tolerated and adverse events were mostly mild with no statistically significant increase in body weight. The results of this study showed that a standard starting dose of ziprasidone in combination with divalproex for bipolar disorder is more effective than a low starting dose.Psychiatry investigation 09/2011; 8(3):207-13. DOI:10.4306/pi.2011.8.3.207 · 1.15 Impact Factor