[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the concept of "global airway allergy" has become widely accepted during recent years, nasobronchial interaction and its mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The experimental study of the effect of nasal allergen deposition on lower airway pathology is hampered by the difficulty of avoiding lower airway penetration of the allergens. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice with experimental airway allergy, nasal allergen provocations were performed after complete anatomical separation of upper and lower airways by means of a tracheotomy. A canula was inserted in the trachea, and the trachea was ligated, thus inhibiting any passage of allergens from upper to lower airways. Mice showed bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine as early as 4 hours after nasal allergen provocation in the absence of recruitment of inflammatory cells. An increased substance P (SP) concentration in the bronchial lumen was found, as well as an increased number of SP-positive pulmonary nerves. Treatment with a neurokinin (NK) 1 receptor antagonist abolished the allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Moreover, endobronchial administration of SP caused NK1 receptor-dependent bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mice with airway allergy. Nasal allergen provocation rapidly induces bronchial hyperresponsiveness via pulmonary up-regulation of SP and activation of NK1 receptors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 04/2011; 44(4):517-23. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this review is to focus on putative modified epithelial functions related to allergy. The dysregulation of the epithelial barrier might result in the allergen uptake, which could be the primary defect in the pathogenesis of allergic reaction. We review the literature of the role of respiratory epithelium as an active barrier, how allergens are transported through it and how it senses the hostile environmental allergens and other dangerous stimuli.
Clinical and translational allergy. 01/2011; 1(1):5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The allergen-unchallenged enteric lesions in late allergic asthma are largely unknown. To clarify this point, BALB/c mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA)/aluminum adjuvant intraperitoneally two times (on days 0 and 10) and then challenged with OVA intranasally on day 14 (asthma group). Four days after the challenge, small intestinal lesions were examined. By this treatment, diarrhea was not observed in the asthma group. Compared to the controls with or without OVA sensitization and/or OVA challenge, the asthma group developed eosinophilic venulitis without an increase in mucosal mast cells in small intestines, whereas intestinal epithelial cells were relatively intact. A few numbers of interleukin (IL)-4(+) and IL-5(+) lymphoid cells were recognized in intestines in the asthma group, but not in the controls. Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on venular endothelium and eotaxin-2(+) eosinophils, but not epithelial cells, in intestines were detected in the asthma group, but not in the controls. Total IgE, OVA-specific IgE and eotaxin, and IL-5, but not interferon-γ, were produced systemically in the asthma group compared to the controls. The present study suggests that eosinophilic venulitis without mast cells in the intestine may be induced by the systemic, but not by local, helper T 2-type responses. In addition, eosinophilic venulitis in small intestines may be subclinical enteric lesions.
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