Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulates Map4k4 expression through TNFalpha receptor 1 signaling to c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2.
ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a cytokine secreted by macrophages and adipocytes that contributes to the low grade inflammation and insulin resistance observed in obesity. TNFalpha signaling decreases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) expression in adipocytes, impairing insulin action, and this is mediated in part by the yeast Ste20 protein kinase ortholog Map4k4. Here we show that Map4k4 expression is selectively up-regulated by TNFalpha, whereas the expression of the protein kinases JNK1/2, ERK1/2, p38 stress-activated protein kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 4/7 shows little or no response. Furthermore, the cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6 as well as lipopolysaccharide fail to increase Map4k4 mRNA levels in cultured adipocytes under conditions where TNFalpha elicits a 3-fold effect. Using agonistic and antagonistic antibodies and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against TNFalpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFalpha receptor 2 (TNFR2), we show that TNFR1, but not TNFR2, mediates the increase in Map4k4 expression. TNFR1, but not TNFR2, also mediates a potent effect of TNFalpha on the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 stress-activated protein kinase and their downstream transcription factor substrates c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2). siRNA-based depletion of c-Jun and ATF2 attenuated TNFalpha action on Map4k4 mRNA expression. Consistent with this concept, the phosphorylation of ATF2 along with the expression and phosphorylation of c-Jun by TNFalpha signaling was more robust and prolonged compared with that of IL-1beta, which failed to modulate Map4k4. These data reveal that TNFalpha selectively stimulates the expression of a key component of its own signaling pathway, Map4k4, through a TNFR1-dependent mechanism that targets the transcription factors c-Jun and ATF2.
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ABSTRACT: The intracellular, protozoan Theileria species parasites are the only eukaryotes known to transform another eukaryotic cell. One consequence of this parasite-dependent transformation is the acquisition of motile and invasive properties of parasitized cells in vitro and their metastatic dissemination in the animal, which causes East Coast Fever (T. parva) or Tropical Theileriosis (T. annulata). These motile and invasive properties of infected host cells are enabled by parasite-dependent, poorly understood F-actin dynamics that control host cell membrane protrusions. Herein, we dissected functional and structural alterations that cause acquired motility and invasiveness of T. annulata-infected cells, to understand the molecular basis driving cell dissemination in Tropical Theileriosis. We found that chronic induction of TNFα by the parasite contributes to motility and invasiveness of parasitized host cells. We show that TNFα does so by specifically targeting expression and function of the host proto-oncogenic ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. Blocking either TNFα secretion or MAP4K4 expression dampens the formation of polar, F-actin-rich invasion structures and impairs cell motility in 3D. We identified the F-actin binding ERM family proteins as MAP4K4 downstream effectors in this process because TNFα-induced ERM activation and cell invasiveness are sensitive to MAP4K4 depletion. MAP4K4 expression in infected cells is induced by TNFα-JNK signalling and maintained by the inhibition of translational repression, whereby both effects are parasite dependent. Thus, parasite-induced TNFα promotes invasive motility of infected cells through the activation of MAP4K4, an evolutionary conserved kinase that controls cytoskeleton dynamics and cell motility. Hence, MAP4K4 couples inflammatory signaling to morphodynamic processes and cell motility, a process exploited by the intracellular Theileria parasite to increase its host cell's dissemination capabilities.PLoS Pathogens 03/2014; 10(3):e1004003. · 8.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective We have previously shown the existence of a muscle-pancreas intercommunication axis in which CX3CL1 (fractalkine), a CX3C chemokine produced by skeletal muscle cells, could be implicated. It has recently been shown that the fractalkine system modulates murine β-cell function. However, the impact of CX3CL1 on human islet cells especially regarding a protective role against cytokine-induced apoptosis remains to be investigated. Methods Gene expression was determined using RNA sequencing in human islets, sorted β - and non β -cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and glucagon secretion from human islets was measured following 24 h exposure to 1-50 ng/ml CX3CL1. GSIS and specific protein phosphorylation were measured in rat sorted β-cells exposed to CX3CL1 for 48 h alone or in the presence of TNFα (20ng/ml). Rat and human β-cell apoptosis (TUNEL) and rat β-cell proliferation (BrdU incorporation) were assessed after 24 h treatment with increasing concentrations of CX3CL1. Results Both CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 are expressed in human islets. However, CX3CL1 is more expressed in non- β cells than in β-cells while its receptor is more expressed in β-cells. CX3CL1 decreased human (but not rat) β-cell apoptosis. CX3CL1 inhibited human islet glucagon secretion stimulated by low glucose but did not impact human islet and rat sorted β-cell GSIS. However, CX3CL1 completely prevented the adverse effect of TNFα on GSIS and on molecular mechanisms involved in insulin granule trafficking by restoring the phosphorylation (Akt, AS160, paxillin) and expression (IRS2, ICAM-1, Sorcin, PCSK1) of key proteins involved in these processes. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that human islets express and secrete CX3CL1 and CX3CL1 impacts them by decreasing glucagon secretion without affecting insulin secretion. Moreover, CX3CL1 decreases basal apoptosis of human β-cells. We further demonstrate that CX3CL1 protects β-cells from the adverse effects of TNFα on their function by restoring the expression and phosphorylation of key proteins of the insulin secretion pathway.Molecular Metabolism. 10/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) is a serine/threonine kinase implicated in the regulation of many biological processes. A fragment-based lead discovery approach was used to generate potent and selective MAP4K4 inhibitors. The fragment hit pursued in this manuscript had excellent ligand efficiency (LE), an important attribute for subsequent successful optimization into drug-like lead compounds. The optimization efforts eventually led us to focus on the pyridopyrimidine series, from which compound 29 was identified. This compound had low nanomolar potency, excellent kinase selectivity and good in vivo exposure, and demonstrated in vivo pharmacodynamic effect in a human tumor xenograft model.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2014; · 5.48 Impact Factor