Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) stimulates Map4k4 expression through TNF alpha receptor 1 signaling to c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2
ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a cytokine secreted by macrophages and adipocytes that contributes to the low grade inflammation and insulin resistance observed in obesity. TNFalpha signaling decreases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) expression in adipocytes, impairing insulin action, and this is mediated in part by the yeast Ste20 protein kinase ortholog Map4k4. Here we show that Map4k4 expression is selectively up-regulated by TNFalpha, whereas the expression of the protein kinases JNK1/2, ERK1/2, p38 stress-activated protein kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 4/7 shows little or no response. Furthermore, the cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6 as well as lipopolysaccharide fail to increase Map4k4 mRNA levels in cultured adipocytes under conditions where TNFalpha elicits a 3-fold effect. Using agonistic and antagonistic antibodies and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against TNFalpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFalpha receptor 2 (TNFR2), we show that TNFR1, but not TNFR2, mediates the increase in Map4k4 expression. TNFR1, but not TNFR2, also mediates a potent effect of TNFalpha on the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 stress-activated protein kinase and their downstream transcription factor substrates c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2). siRNA-based depletion of c-Jun and ATF2 attenuated TNFalpha action on Map4k4 mRNA expression. Consistent with this concept, the phosphorylation of ATF2 along with the expression and phosphorylation of c-Jun by TNFalpha signaling was more robust and prolonged compared with that of IL-1beta, which failed to modulate Map4k4. These data reveal that TNFalpha selectively stimulates the expression of a key component of its own signaling pathway, Map4k4, through a TNFR1-dependent mechanism that targets the transcription factors c-Jun and ATF2.
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ABSTRACT: Heart failure is one of the paramount global causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite this pandemic need, the available clinical counter-measures have not altered substantially in recent decades, most notably in the context of pharmacological interventions. Cell death plays a causal role in heart failure, and its inhibition poses a promising approach that has not been thoroughly explored. In previous approaches to target discovery, clinical failures have reflected a deficiency in mechanistic understanding, and in some instances, failure to systematically translate laboratory findings toward the clinic. Here, we review diverse mouse models of heart failure, with an emphasis on those that identify potential targets for pharmacological inhibition of cell death, and on how their translation into effective therapies might be improved in the future.Current Topics in Developmental Biology 01/2014; 109:171-247. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-397920-9.00002-0 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fine regulation of the innate immune response following brain injury or infection is important to avoid excessive activation of microglia and its detrimental consequences on neural cell viability and function. To get insights on the molecular networks regulating microglia activation, we analyzed expression, regulation and functional relevance of tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR) 2 in cultured mouse microglia. We found that microglia upregulate TNFR2 mRNA and protein and shed large amounts of soluble TNFR2, but not TNFR1, in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and through activation of TNFR2 itself. By microarray analysis, we demonstrate that TNFR2 stimulation in microglia regulates expression of genes involved in immune processes, including molecules with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective function like granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, adrenomedullin and IL-10. In addition, we identify IFN-γ as a regulator of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective factors induced by TNFR2 stimulation. These data indicate that, through TNFR2, microglia may contribute to the counter-regulatory response activated in neuropathological conditions.Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 11/2010; 45(3):234-44. DOI:10.1016/j.mcn.2010.06.014 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impairment of mitochondrial activity affects lipid-metabolizing tissues and mild mitochondrial uncoupling has been proposed as a possible strategy to fight obesity and associated diseases. In this report, we characterized the 3T3-L1-adipocyte ;de-differentiation' induced by carbonyl cyanide (p-trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial uncoupler. We found a decrease in triglyceride (TG) content in adipocytes incubated with this molecule. We next analyzed the expression of genes encoding adipogenic markers and effectors and compared the differentially expressed genes in adipocytes treated with FCCP or TNFalpha (a cytokine known to induce adipocyte de-differentiation). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha transcription factors was found in adipocytes with impaired mitochondrial activity. However, although these modifications were also found in TNFalpha-treated adipocytes, rosiglitazone and 9-cis retinoic acid (PPARgamma and RXR ligands) were unable to prevent triglyceride loss in FCCP-treated cells. Metabolic assays also revealed that TG reduction could be mediated by a downregulation of lipid synthesis rather than an upregulation of fatty acid oxidation. Finally, lipolysis stimulated by the uncoupler also seems to contribute to the TG reduction, a process associated with perilipin A downregulation. These results highlight some new mechanisms that might potentially be involved in adipocyte de-differentiation initiated by a mitochondrial uncoupling.Journal of Cell Science 01/2009; 122(Pt 1):145-55. DOI:10.1242/jcs.027508 · 5.33 Impact Factor