Article

Characterization of an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein found in humans and mice.

Discipline of Pathology and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
Gene (Impact Factor: 2.08). 08/2007; 396(1):203-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2007.04.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (INDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) each catalyze the first step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. We describe the discovery of another enzyme with this activity, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein (INDOL1), which is closely related to INDO and is expressed in mice and humans. The corresponding genes have a similar genomic structure and are situated adjacent to each other on human and mouse chromosome 8. They are likely to have arisen by gene duplication before the origin of the tetrapods. The expression of INDOL1 is highest in the mouse kidney, followed by epididymis, and liver. Expression of mouse INDOL1 was further localized to the tubular cells in the kidney and the spermatozoa. INDOL1 was assigned its name because of its structural similarity to INDO. We demonstrate that INDOL1 catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine therefore a more appropriate nomenclature for the enzymes might be INDO-1 and INDO-2, or the more commonly-used abbreviations, IDO-1 and IDO-2. Although the two proteins have similar enzymatic activities, their different expression patterns within tissues and during malaria infection, suggests a distinct role for each protein. This identification of INDOL1 may help to explain the regulation of the diversity of physiological and patho-physiological processes in which the kynurenine pathway is involved.

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    ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenases (IDOs) are tryptophan-catabolizing enzymes with immunomodulatory functions. However, the biological role of IDO2 and its relationship with IDO1 are unknown. To assess the relationship between IDO2 and IDO1, we investigated the effects of co-expression of human (h) IDO2 on hIDO1 activity. Cells co-expressing hIDO1 and hIDO2 showed reduced tryptophan metabolic activity compared with those expressing hIDO1 only. In a proteomic analysis, hIDO1-expressing cells exhibited enhanced expression of proteins related to the cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, and decreased expression of proteins related to cell survival. However, cells co-expressing hIDO1 and hIDO2 showed enhanced expression of negative regulators of cell apoptosis compared with those expressing hIDO1 only. Co-expression of hIDO1 and hIDO2 rescued the cell death induced by tryptophan-depletion through hIDO1 activity. Cells expressing only hIDO2 exhibited no marked differences in proteome profiles or cell growth compared with mock-transfectants. Cellular tryptophan metabolic activity and cell death were restored by co-expressing the hIDO2 mutant substituting the histidine 360 residue for alanine. These results demonstrate that hIDO2 plays a novel role as a negative regulator of hIDO1 by competing for heme-binding with hIDO1, and provide information useful for development of therapeutic strategies to control cancer and immunological disorders that target IDO molecules.
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    ABSTRACT: The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the principal route of L-tryptophan (TRP) catabolism leading to the production of kynurenine (KYN), the neuroprotectants, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and picolinic acid (PIC), the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QUIN) and the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO-2) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO-2) initiate the first step of the KP. IDO-1 and TDO-2 induction in tumors are crucial mechanisms implicated to play pivotal roles in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Here, we report the first comprehensive characterisation of the KP in 1) cultured human glioma cells and 2) plasma from patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Our data revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulation significantly potentiated the expression of the KP enzymes, IDO-1 IDO-2, kynureninase (KYNU), kynurenine hydroxylase (KMO) and significantly down-regulated 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) and kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I) expression in cultured human glioma cells. This significantly increased KP activity but significantly lowered the KYNA/KYN neuroprotective ratio in human cultured glioma cells. KP activation (KYN/TRP) was significantly higher, whereas the concentrations of the neuroreactive KP metabolites TRP, KYNA, QUIN and PIC and the KYNA/KYN ratio were significantly lower in GBM patient plasma (n = 18) compared to controls. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of the KP in glioma pathophysiology and highlight a potential role of KP products as novel and highly attractive therapeutic targets to evaluate for the treatment of brain tumors, aimed at restoring anti-tumor immunity and reducing the capacity for malignant cells to produce NAD+, which is necessary for energy production and DNA repair.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112945. · 3.53 Impact Factor

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