Article

# Exploring the thermodynamic limit of Hamiltonian models: convergence to the Vlasov equation.

Dipartimento di Energetica and CSDC, Università di Firenze, and INFN, via S. Marta, 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy.

Physical Review Letters (Impact Factor: 7.73). 05/2007; 98(15):150602. DOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.98.150602 Source: PubMed

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**ABSTRACT:**Systems with long-range (LR) forces, for which the interaction potential decays with the interparticle distance with an exponent smaller than the dimensionality of the embedding space, remain an outstanding challenge to statistical physics. The internal energy of such systems lacks extensivity and additivity. Although the extensivity can be restored by scaling the interaction potential with the number of particles, the non-additivity still remains. Lack of additivity leads to inequivalence of statistical ensembles. Before relaxing to thermodynamic equilibrium, isolated systems with LR forces become trapped in out-of-equilibrium quasi-stationary states (qSSs), the lifetime of which diverges with the number of particles. Therefore, in the thermodynamic limit LR systems will not relax to equilibrium. The qSSs are attained through the process of collisionless relaxation. Density oscillations lead to particle–wave interactions and excitation of parametric resonances. The resonant particles escape from the main cluster to form a tenuous halo. Simultaneously, this cools down the core of the distribution and dampens out the oscillations. When all the oscillations die out the ergodicity is broken and a qSS is born. In this report, we will review a theory which allows us to quantitatively predict the particle distribution in the qSS. The theory is applied to various LR interacting systems, ranging from plasmas to self-gravitating clusters and kinetic spin models.Physics Reports 01/2013; 535(1):1-60. · 22.93 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**According to standard thermodynamics, the efficiency of a cyclic machine is strictly lower than one. Such a result is a straightforward consequence of the second principle of thermodynamics. Recent advances in the study of the thermodynamics of long-range interacting system report however on a rather intricate zoology of peculiar behaviors, which are occasionally in contrast with customarily accepted scenarios, dueling with intuition and common sense. In this paper, a thermodynamical cycle is assembled for an ideal device working with non-Boltzmanian long-range fluid and operating in contact with two thermal reservoirs. Assuming the microcanonical or canonical temperature to be the correct thermodynamic temperature, we obtain a paradoxical conclusion: the system is in fact analytically shown to violate the second principle of thermodynamics. This phenomenon ultimately relates to the existence of regions in the canonical ensemble where the energy decreases with the average kinetic temperature. We argue that the validity of the second principle of thermodynamics can be possibly regained, by revisiting the definition of canonical ensemble, as well as the Fourier law of heat transport, and consequently relaxing the constraint on the maximal efficiency as imposed by the Carnot theorem.Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 11/2012; 17(11):4174–4180. · 2.57 Impact Factor - 06/2008, Degree: Master in Physics, Supervisor: Yan Levin and Renato Pakter

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