Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of fermented corn cob, rice bran and cowpea husk for use in composite rabbit feed

Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Bioresource Technology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 05/2008; 99(6):1816-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.03.036
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermentation on the proximate composition of corn cob, rice bran and cowpea husk for use in composite rabbit feed formulations. The test ingredients were moistened with tap water and allowed to ferment naturally at room temperature. During fermentation, samples of the fermenting materials were extracted at zero, 24 and 48 h for physico-chemical and microbiological analyses using standard procedures. The microorganisms associated with the fermenting materials were identified as Rhizopus oligosporus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Rhodotorula, Geotrichum candidum, Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two (R. oligosporus and S. cerevisiae) out of microorganisms present were used as starter cultures to ferment the test ingredients and the fermented products were then analyzed. From the results obtained S. cerevisiae enhanced the protein and fat contents while R. oligosporus was able to degrade the fiber significantly.

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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of solid-state fermentation of a compound pig feed on its microbial and nutritional characteristics as well as on pig performance and nutrient digestibility. A mixed culture containing Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Bacillus subtilis was used for solid-state fermentation and solid-state fermented feed samples were collected on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 30 for microbial counts and chemical analysis. Lactic acid bacteria increased rapidly during the first three days of fermentation and then slowly declined until day 10 and, thereafter, the counts were maintained at about 6.7 log cfu/g for the duration of the fermentation period. Enterobacteria also increased during the first two days, and then fell below the detectable level of the analysis (3.0 log cfu/g). The pH of the fermentation substrate declined from 6.1 at the start of fermentation to 5.7 by day 30. The water-soluble protein content increased from 8.2 to 9.2% while the concentration of acetic acid increased from 16.6 to 51.3 mmol/kg over the 30-day fermentation. At the end of the 30-day fermentation, the solid-state fermented feed was used in a pig feeding trial to determine its effects on performance and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. Twenty crossbred barrows (14.11?0.77 kg BW) were allotted into two dietary treatments, which comprised a regular dry diet containing antibiotics and a solid-state fermented feed based diet, free of antibiotics. There was no difference due to diet on pig performance or nutrient digestibility. In conclusion, solid-state fermentation resulted in high counts of lactic acid bacteria and low counts of enterobacteria in the substrate. Moreover, feeding a diet containing solid-state fermented feed, free of antibiotics, can result in similar performance and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs to a regular diet with antibiotics.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 11/2008; 21(11). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2008.80032 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of the concentration of the citric acid (CA) on the Cd(II) adsorption capacity of corncob was investigated in this work. The concentrations of acidic sites of the natural corncob (NC) and chemically modified corncobs (OXCs) were determined by acid–base titration, and the acidic sites were mainly carboxylic and hydroxylic sites. The functional groups on the surface of the NC and OXCs were identified by infrared spectroscopy. The surface charge of the NC and OXCs was also evaluated by a titration method and the pH of points of zero charge (pHPZC) of NC and OXCs ranged from 2.4 to 5.0. The adsorption capacity of OXCs presented a maximum when the concentration of CA was 1.0 mol/L, this corncob was designated as OX1.0. The adsorption capacity of OXCs was linearly proportional to the concentrations of carboxylic sites. Hence, the carboxylic sites played a very important role on the adsorption capacity of OXCs. The adsorption capacity of OX1.0 was augmented by raising the solution pH from 3 to 7. This trend was attributed to the electrostatic interactions between the OX1.0 and the Cd2+ cations in the water solution. The adsorption capacity of corncob can be considerably enhanced by chemical modification with CA.
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