24-Hour provoked urine excretion test for heavy metals in children with autism and typically developing controls, a pilot study
ABSTRACT The complementary and alternative medicine practice of prescribing chelators to children with autism is based on the premise that the chronic symptoms of autism can be ameliorated by reducing heavy metal body burden. However, there has not been definitive evidence, published to date, to support the assertion that children with autism are at increased risk of an excess chelatable body burden of heavy metals. The oral chelator meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) can be used diagnostically to mobilize heavy metals from extravascular pools, enhancing the identification of individuals who have a chelatable body burden.
Seventeen children with autism and five typically developing children were enrolled in a pilot study to test for chelatable body burden of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), and Mercury (Hg). Evaluation included a questionnaire regarding potential exposure to heavy metals, diet restrictions, a baseline 24-hour urine collection, and a DMSA-provoked urine collection. Urine collections were sent for As, Cd, Pb, and Hg quantification by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Unprovoked reference ranges were used in the interpretation of all collections.
Fifteen autistic children and four typically developing children completed the study. Three autistic subjects excreted one metal in greater quantity during the provoked excretion than baseline. Two of these were very close to the limit of detection. In the third case, the provoked excretion of mercury was between the upper limit of normal and lower limit of the potentially toxic reference range. Fish was removed from this child's diet for greater than one month, and the provoked excretion test repeated. The repeat excretion of mercury was within the normal range.
In the absence a proven novel mode of heavy metal toxicity, the proportion of autistic participants in this study whose DMSA provoked excretion results demonstrate an excess chelatable body burden of As, Cd, Pb, or Hg is zero. The confidence interval for this proportion is 0-22%.
- SourceAvailable from: Tulin Soylemezoglu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dilek Kaya Akyuzlu, Zeliha Kayaalti, Esma Soylemez and Tulin Soylemezoglu
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine possible links between neurotoxicant exposure and neuropsychological disorders and child behavior, relative concentrations of lead, mercury, and manganese were examined in prenatal and postnatal enamel regions of deciduous teeth from children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), high levels of disruptive behavior (HDB), and typically developing (TD) children. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we found no significant differences in levels of these neurotoxicants for children with ASDs compared with TD children, but there was marginal significance indicating that children with ASDs have lower manganese levels. No significant differences emerged between children with HDB and TD children. The current findings challenge the notion that perinatal heavy metal exposure is a major contributor to the development of ASDs and HDB.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 07/2011; 42(6):929-36. DOI:10.1007/s10803-011-1318-6 · 3.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review paper examines and evaluates urine-sampling methodologies in infants and young children, to determine which methods are suitable for use in large biomonitoring surveys or studies of environmental chemicals in children younger than 6 years. Methods for non-toilet-trained children include the use of urine bags, collection pads (e.g., cotton or gauze inserts), disposable diapers, cotton diapers, and the clean catch method. In toilet-trained children, collection methods include use of a commode insert pan as well as specimen collection cups. The advantages and disadvantages of these various methods need to be evaluated with respect to the target population, timing and frequency of collection, minimum sample volume required, method of urine extraction, potential for contamination of the sample, stability of the analyte of interest, and burden on participants and research team. Collection methods must not introduce contamination or affect the integrity of the sample, should be logistically practical, and should minimize discomfort experienced by the child. Although collection of urine samples from children who are not toilet-trained is more challenging than collection from older toilet-trained children, the vulnerability of younger children to the exposure to and health effects of environmental chemicals makes finding suitable methods a priority.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 07/2009; 19(7):625-33. DOI:10.1038/jes.2009.36 · 3.05 Impact Factor