Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content.
ABSTRACT To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults.
Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood); (2) lean fish (3 x 150 g portions of cod/week); (3) fatty fish (3 x 150 g portions of salmon/week); (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups, were single-blinded.
A total of 324 men and women aged 20-40 years, BMI 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2) from Iceland, Spain and Ireland.
Anthropometric data were collected at baseline, midpoint and endpoint. Confounding factors were accounted for, with linear models, for repeated measures with two-way interactions. The most important interactions for weight loss were (diet x energy intake), (gender x diet) and (gender x initial-weight).
An average man in the study (95 kg at baseline receiving 1600 kcal/day) was estimated to lose 3.55 kg (95% CI, 3.14-3.97) (1); 4.35 kg (95% CI, 3.94-4.75) (2); 4.50 kg (95% CI, 4.13-4.87) (3) and 4.96 kg (95% CI, 4.53-5.40) on diet (4) in 4 weeks, from baseline to midpoint. The weight-loss from midpoint to endpoint was 0.45 (0.41-0.49) times the observed weight loss from baseline to midpoint. The diets did not differ in their effect on weight loss in women. Changes in measures of body composition were in line with changes in body weight.
In young, overweight men, the inclusion of either lean or fatty fish, or fish oil as part of an energy-restricted diet resulted in approximately 1 kg more weight loss after 4 weeks, than did a similar diet without seafood or supplement of marine origin. The addition of seafood to a nutritionally balanced energy-restricted diet may boost weight loss.
- CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 08/1970; 18(8):1636-42. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to compare the effects of standard and branched chain amino acid enriched solutions on thermogenesis and energy expenditure in unconscious and mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. The study was carried out at multidisciplinary intensive care unit. Twenty unconscious and mechanically ventilated patients (18-65 years of age) were included in the study. Patients were hemodynamically stable and all received continuous enteral nutrition. Energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris-Benedict Equation for all of the patients. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a 4h infusion of 0.4 g/kg protein as amino acid solution. Group I (n = 10) received standard amino acid solution and group II (n = 10) received branched chain amino acid enriched solution. Energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured by indirect calorimetric method every 30 min during the 4h infusion period and 3h thereafter. Rectal temperature was recorded concomitantly with the metabolic measurements throughout the study. There was a statistically significant increase in body temperature during the infusion of amino acid solution between 30 and 210 min in group I and between 30 and 120 min in group II (P <0.05). We observed a significant increase in energy expenditure at 30, 150, 180 and 210 min in group I and at 30-240 min in group II (P <0.05). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of thermogenesis or energy expenditure values during the study (P >0.05). Thermogenesis and energy expenditure values were increased during the parenteral infusion of both standard amino acid and branched chain amino acid enriched solutions in unconscious intensive care patients without any significance in between.Clinical Nutrition 04/2004; 23(2):257-63. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity in hypertensive patients is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, both of which are improved by weight control. n-3 Fatty acids have diverse effects on mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis, including a decrease in serum triacylglycerols and an increase in HDL(2) cholesterol. The objective was to examine whether dietary fish enhances the effects of weight loss on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin in 69 overweight, treated hypertensive patients. Overweight patients being treated for hypertension were randomly assigned to either a daily fish meal (3.65 g n-3 fatty acids), a weight-loss regimen, the 2 regimens combined, or a control group for 16 wk. Sixty-three subjects completed the study. Weight decreased by a mean (+/-SEM) of 5.6 +/- 0.8 kg with energy restriction. Weight loss decreased fasting insulin (P = 0.003) and the area under the curve for insulin (P = 0.003) and glucose (P = 0.047) during an oral-glucose-tolerance test. The greatest decrease occurred in the fish + weight-loss group. There was no independent effect of fish on glucose or insulin. Fish increased HDL(2) cholesterol (P = 0.004) and decreased HDL(3) cholesterol (P = 0.026) without altering total, LDL, or HDL cholesterol. Weight loss had no effect on these variables. Fasting triacylglycerols fell significantly with fish consumption (29%) and weight loss (26%). The fish + weight-loss group showed the greatest improvement in lipids: triacylglycerols decreased by 38% (P < 0.001) and HDL(2) cholesterol increased by 24% (P = 0.04) compared with the control group. Incorporating a daily fish meal into a weight-loss regimen was more effective than either measure alone at improving glucose-insulin metabolism and dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular risk is likely to be substantially reduced in overweight hypertensive patients with a weight-loss program incorporating fish meals rich in n-3 fatty acids.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/1999; 70(5):817-25. · 6.50 Impact Factor