Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

Unit for Nutrition Research, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Landspitali University Hospital, University of Iceland, Eiriksgata-29, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
International Journal of Obesity (Impact Factor: 5). 11/2007; 31(10):1560-6. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803643
Source: PubMed


To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults.
Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood); (2) lean fish (3 x 150 g portions of cod/week); (3) fatty fish (3 x 150 g portions of salmon/week); (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups, were single-blinded.
A total of 324 men and women aged 20-40 years, BMI 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2) from Iceland, Spain and Ireland.
Anthropometric data were collected at baseline, midpoint and endpoint. Confounding factors were accounted for, with linear models, for repeated measures with two-way interactions. The most important interactions for weight loss were (diet x energy intake), (gender x diet) and (gender x initial-weight).
An average man in the study (95 kg at baseline receiving 1600 kcal/day) was estimated to lose 3.55 kg (95% CI, 3.14-3.97) (1); 4.35 kg (95% CI, 3.94-4.75) (2); 4.50 kg (95% CI, 4.13-4.87) (3) and 4.96 kg (95% CI, 4.53-5.40) on diet (4) in 4 weeks, from baseline to midpoint. The weight-loss from midpoint to endpoint was 0.45 (0.41-0.49) times the observed weight loss from baseline to midpoint. The diets did not differ in their effect on weight loss in women. Changes in measures of body composition were in line with changes in body weight.
In young, overweight men, the inclusion of either lean or fatty fish, or fish oil as part of an energy-restricted diet resulted in approximately 1 kg more weight loss after 4 weeks, than did a similar diet without seafood or supplement of marine origin. The addition of seafood to a nutritionally balanced energy-restricted diet may boost weight loss.

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    • "Long chain omega-3 fatty acids have been considered as potential body composition modulators with or without dietary energy restriction [44]. However, due to significant heterogeneity in population, body composition measurement, length of trial and dose of LCn-3s some trials have reported no effect [45-50], while others have indicated some effect [51-54]. However, of the studies reporting an improvement of one of more body composition parameters after increased LCn-3s intake, the clinical significance of the changes in LBM seen are minimal [40]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of lean body mass (LBM) is a common occurrence after treatment for breast cancer and is related to deleterious metabolic health outcomes [Clin Oncol, 22(4):281-288, 2010; Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 34(5):950-956, 2009]. The aim of this research is to determine the effectiveness of long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3s) and exercise training alone, or in combination, in addressing LBM loss in breast cancer survivors.Methods/design: A total of 153 women who have completed treatment for breast cancer in the last 12 months, with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 20 to 35kg/m2, will be randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: 3g/d LCn-3s (LC), a 12-week nutrition and exercise education program plus olive oil (P-LC) or the education program plus LCn-3s (E-LC). Participants randomised to the education groups will be blinded to treatment, and will receive either olive oil placebo (P) or LCn-3 provision, while the LC group will be open label. The education program includes nine 60-75min sessions over 12 weeks that will involve breast cancer specific healthy eating advice, plus a supervised exercise session run as a resistance exercise circuit. They will also be advised to conduct the resistance training and aerobic training 5 to 7 days per week collectively. Outcome measures will be taken at baseline, 12-weeks and 24-weeks. The primary outcome is % change in LBM as measured by the air displacement plethysmograhy. Secondary outcomes include quality of life (FACT-B + 4) and inflammation (C-Reactive protein: CRP). Additional measures taken will be erythrocyte fatty acid analysis, fatigue, physical activity, menopausal symptoms, dietary intake, joint pain and function indices. This research will provide the first insight into the efficacy of LCn-3s alone or in combination with exercise in breast cancer survivors with regards to LBM and quality of life. In addition, this study is designed to improve evidence-based dietetic practice, and how specific dietary prescription may link with appropriate exercise interventions.Trials registration: ACTRN12610001005044; and World Health Organisation Universal trial number: U1111-1116-8520.
    BMC Cancer 04/2014; 14(1):264. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-264 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Apart from quantity, the quality of dietary proteins is of significance in the prevention of obesity. Prospective cohort studies have demonstrated that consumption of fish as a part of healthy diet is associated with lower body weight (Schulze et al. 2006; Shubair et al. 2005) and randomized controlled studies show that the inclusion of fish in energy-restricted diets resulted in greater weight loss compared to control diets without seafood (Thorsdottir et al. 2007; Ramel et al. 2009). In addition, incorporation of a daily fish meal into a weight-loss regimen was more effective than either fish consumption or weight loss alone at improving glucose-insulin metabolism and dyslipidemia (Mori et al. 1999). "
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    Amino Acids 03/2014; 46(7). DOI:10.1007/s00726-014-1715-1 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    • "From a food perspective, LCn3 PUFA are primarily found in fish, so further research examining effects of fish consumption may be informative. One short term study found that eating oily fish or taking supplements may be equally beneficial in achieving a greater weight loss, at least in fish eating populations [13]. "
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    BMC Public Health 12/2013; 13(1):1231. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1231 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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