HIV suppression by HAART preserves cognitive function in advanced, immune-reconstituted AIDS patients
ABSTRACT HIV can damage neurons leading to cognitive impairment. Epidemiological observations suggest that neuropsychological impairment might progress despite successful HAART therapy, but available prevalence estimates are based on populations that were selected for impairment.
Of 433 advanced AIDS patients with documented immune reconstitution (CD4 lymphocyte counts < 50 before and > 100 cells/microl after HAART), 286 had brief assessments of cognition (Trailmaking A/B and Digit Symbol Tests) at least once, no confounding neurological conditions, and available neuropsychological norms with comprehensive demographic corrections. At entry, most were immune reconstituted on HAART (median CD4 cell count 230 cells/microl) and HIV was suppressed (65% < 500; only 14% > 20 000 RNA copies/ml).
Over one quarter (27%) of participants exhibited impairment at their initial neuropsychological assessment, a rate nearly twice that expected in a normal (HIV-uninfected) reference population (14%). These impaired participants did not differ from the unimpaired group with respect to age, sex, education, race, CD4 lymphocyte counts, or HIV-RNA levels. Improved performance on neuropsychological tests was documented over a 2-year period 3-5 years after initiating HAART. This improvement was marginally associated with the continued or improving control of plasma HIV-RNA levels, but not with concurrent levels of immune recovery (CD4 lymphocyte counts).
Most advanced AIDS patients responding to HAART for prolonged periods have stable or improving cognition, but remain more likely to be impaired than the general population. During HAART, improving test performance probably reflects both practice effects and continuing neurological recovery after more than 3 years of HAART.
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ABSTRACT: The invasion of circulating monocytes/macrophages (Mφ)s from the peripheral blood into the central nervous system (CNS) appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV dementia (HIV-D), the most severe form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), often confirmed histologically as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). In order to determine if trafficking of monocytes/Mφs is exclusive to the CNS or if it also occurs in organs outside of the brain, we have focused our investigation on visceral tissues of patients with HIVE. Liver, lymph node, spleen, and kidney autopsy tissues from the same HIVE cases investigated in earlier studies were examined by immunohistochemistry for the presence of CD14, CD16, CD68, Ki-67, and HIV-1 p24 expression. Here, we report a statistically significant increase in accumulation of Mφs in kidney, spleen, and lymph node tissues in specimens from patients with HIVE. In liver, we did not observe a significant increase in parenchymal macrophage accumulation, although perivascular macrophage accumulation was consistently observed with nodular lesions in 4 of 5 HIVE cases. We also observed an absence of CD14 expression on splenic Mφs in HIVE cases, which may implicate the spleen as a potential source of increased plasma soluble CD14 in HIV infection. HIV-1 p24 expression was observed in liver, lymph node and spleen but not kidney. Interestingly, renal pathology suggestive of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (possibly due to chronic pyelonephritis), including tubulointerstitial scarring, chronic interstitial inflammation and focal global glomerulosclerosis, without evidence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), was seen in four of eight HIVE cases. Focal segmental and global glomerulosclerosis with tubular dilatation and prominent interstitial inflammation, consistent with HIVAN, was observed in two of the eight cases. Abundant cells expressing monocyte/Mφ cell surface markers, CD14 and CD68, were also CD16+ and found surrounding dilated tubules and adjacent to areas of glomerulosclerosis. The finding of co-morbid HIVE and renal pathology characterized by prominent interstitial inflammation may suggest a common mechanism involving the invasion of activated monocytes/Mφs from circulation. Monocyte/Mφ invasion of visceral tissues may play an important role in the immune dysfunction as well as comorbidity in AIDS and may, therefore, provide a high value target for the design of therapeutic strategies.Current HIV Research 07/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.2174/1570162X12666140713165141 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess changes over time in neuropsychological test results (NPr) and risk factors among a regularly followed HIV-infected patient population. Prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients randomly selected to undergo neuropsychological follow-up. Test score was adjusted for age, sex and education. Patients were divided into five groups: normal tests, neuropsychological deficit (one impaired cognitive domain), asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders (ANIs), mild neurocognitive disorders (MNDs) and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Demographic and background parameters including CSF drug concentration penetration effectiveness (CPE) score 2010 were recorded. Changes in NPr and associated risk factors were analyzed. Two hundred and fifty-six patients underwent neuropsychological tests and 96 accepted follow-up approximately 2 years later. The groups were comparable. Upon neuropsychological retesting, six patients improved, 31 worsened and 59 were stable. The proportion of patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) rose from 26 to 45%, with ANIs and MNDs still mostly represented. Most patients initially diagnosed with HANDs remained stable, five of 25 showed clinical improvement and three of 25 deteriorated. Of 33 patients with normal tests, four deteriorated, whereas 24 of 38 with initial neuropsychological deficit had poorer NPr, and contributed most of the new HAND cases. Patients with clinical deterioration had a lower CPE score both at inclusion (6.9 vs. 8.1; P = 0.005) and at the end of follow-up (7.2 vs. 7.8; P = 0.08) than those with improved or stable performance. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis. Patients with higher CPE scores upon inclusion and at the end of follow-up were at lower risk of clinical worsening, suggesting that combination antiretroviral therapy with better CSF penetration could protect against cognitive deterioration.AIDS (London, England) 02/2014; 28(4):493-501. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000096 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current therapy for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a combination of anti-HIV drugs targeting multiple steps of virus replication. The drugs for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment include reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, co-receptor inhibitor and the newly added integrase inhibitors. Raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir are the three Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved integrase strand transfer inhibitors for clinical treatment of HIV infection. The addition of these integrase inhibitors benefits a lot to HIV infected patients. Although it is only seven years from the first integrase inhibitor, which was approved by FDA to now, multiple drug resistant HIV strains have emerged in clinical treatment. Most of the drug resistant virus strains are against raltegravir. Some are cross-resistant to elvitegravir. Dolutegravir is effective for suppression of the current drug resistant viruses. A number of clinical trials have been performed on the three integrase inhibitors. In this study, the application of the three integrase inhibitors in clinical treatment and the findings of drug resistance to integrase inhibitors are summarized.Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 10/2014; 68(8). DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2014.09.013 · 2.11 Impact Factor