To determine outcome associated with cutaneous tumors treated via intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin and identify risk factors affecting local tumor control and complications in equidae.
Retrospective case series.
573 equidae with 630 cutaneous tumors.
Medical records of horses, mules, donkeys, and ponies with cutaneous tumors treated via intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin were analyzed.
549 horses, 13 mules, 8 donkeys, and 3 ponies with 630 histologically confirmed cutaneous tumors were included. Tumors included sarcoids (n = 409), squamous cell carcinomas (151), soft tissue sarcomas (28), cutaneous lymphomas (26), and melanomas (16). Overall cure rate, defined as local control at 4 years, was 93.3%. For all tumor stages combined, cure rates after 1 course of treatment were 96.3% for sarcoids, 96% for lymphomas, 88% for squamous cell carcinomas, 85% for soft tissue sarcomas, and 81% for melanomas. Treatment protocol, tumor stage, and prior treatment were significant prognostic factors for tumor control. Treatment efficacy was lower for large tumors, those with gross postoperative residual disease, and those that had been treated previously with other modalities. Treatment was well tolerated. Local reactions were more likely to occur and to be more severe after the third and fourth treatment sessions.
Results confirmed the value of intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin for treatment of cutaneous tumors in equidae. The results cannot be extrapolated to other formulations of cisplatin or other protocols that might be used.
"Note the complete epithelialization. localized necrosis and suppuration   . Side effects of photodynamic therapy include marked eyelid swelling for up to 10 days after treatment, permanent scarring, and alopecia . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exenteration of an eye may be necessary in clinical practice for a variety of disease processes. Specifically, neoplastic processes may require wide excision margins that may not allow primary closure of the surgical site. This report describes a series of horses undergoing unilateral radical eye exenteration for which primary closure was not possible due the extent of tissue excised. For each case the underlying pathology, surgical technique, perioperative treatments and outcome are described. Six cases were treated of which 3 survive at this time, 2 were euthanized because of recurrence, 1 was euthanized from unrelated problem.
Radical exenteration of the eye with wide margins and second intention healing is easy to perform and well tolerated in horses. It should be considered when extensive resection is required for instance in neoplastic processes. Aftercare is required as for all wounds that heal by second intention; time from surgery to epithelialization is approximately 4 months.
"Different presentations may occur simultaneously in the same animal or in the same wound  . Prognosis depends on several factors including tumor type, location, size, lesion extension, number of masses, and treatment applied  . There are several protocols described for sarcoid treatment, but none of them is fully effective. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t This case report focuses on a 7-year-old asinine referred to the Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal, for surgical resolution of a preputial mass. Physical examination revealed that the animal was in good condition except for the presence of a firm and verrucous mass with a diameter of approximately 7 cm, located on the preputial area, compatible with a diagnosis of sarcoid. The mass showed no penile involvement but caused permanent paraphimosis. Surgical excision of the mass was selected as treatment from among available protocols. An elective bilateral orchiectomy was also carried out to reduce libido by eliminating testosterone production. Afterwards, complete removal of the mass was performed, including a safety margin, with minimum blood loss. Sarcoid diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological evaluation. No complications were observed during anesthesia, as metabolic differences between horses and asinines were taken into consideration for the correct determination of drug doses to be administered. Also, no problems were observed during the postoperative and recovery periods. According to some studies, concurrent administration of a cytostatic agent is recommended to avoid sarcoid relapses. To our knowledge, this case report represents the first description of surgical resolution of preputial sarcoid in a donkey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcoid is the most common tumor in horses all over the world. The sarcoid is a benign, locally invasive, usually fibroblastic proliferative skin neoplasm. Even if the etiology is not completley verified, the epidemiology and clinical behavior suggest a infectious intervention, probably BPV type 1 or type 2. However, it is known that the cause is multifactorial. A genetic prepdispositon has been identified associated to genes within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), but also to breed, age and perhaps gender. There is also a proved connection between skin-trauma and development of sarcoids. This type of neoplasm tend to develop in areas of thin skin, such as the face, distal limbs and ventral parts of thorax, abdomen and genital areas. There are six saroid types identified makroscopically; occult, nodular, verrucous, fibroblastic, mixed sarcoid and malevolent. However a biopsy for histopathology is needed to verify the diagnosis. There are several treatment options available (surgery, cryosurgery, hyperthermia, radiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy), but their use may be limited depending on the type of sarcoid, size, area affected, localization, available equipment and environmental safety. Sarcoids are also known for a high reoccurence rate after treatment.
This study compares and analysis the effects of Aldara™ and Xxterra™. Aldara™ is a verified immunotherapy, whereas the exact mechanism of action for Xxterra™ is not verified, though according to the producer Xxterra™ is also an immunotherapy. With this type of treatment the local immune system will be stimulated to reduce tumour cells and virus. The purpose of this study was to find a simple and effective treatment with a low rate of reoccurency. The study enrolled 19 horses with a total of 130 tumours. Of these tumors, 41 where treated and the rest were used as untreated controls. Seventeen horses with 30 tumours were treated with Aldara™ and 10 horses with 15 tumours were treated with Xxterra™. Eight of the horses with multiple sarcoids were treated with both ointments.
Of the 30 tumors treated with Aldara™ 27 tumors (90%) has so far responded with size reduction or total regression. The 3 tumors that didn´t respond to treatment were all fibroblastic sarcoids localized to the distal limbs on one horse. Of the 15 tumors treated with Xxterra™ 14 tumors (93%) has so far responded with size reduction or total regression. The tumor that didn´t respond to treatment was an occult sarcoid localized to the shoulder. In all the tumors that didn´t respond to treatment a change of medicine was made, after a treatment free period of at least 12 weeks, which immedately lead to a reduction in size. All the tumors has so far responded to at least one of the treatments.
The preliminary results of these two types of treatments are encouraging, though the number of horses included in the study is small. An extended study, comprising more horses and longer periods of follow-up, is required to be able to corroborate these conclusions.
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