Differential inhibition of CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activities by the P450 oxidoreductase mutant A287P.
ABSTRACT P450 oxidoreductase (POR) has a pivotal role in facilitating electron transfer from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate to microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, including the steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1 and CYP21A2. Mutations in POR have been shown recently to cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 deficiency that comprises a variable clinical phenotype, including glucocorticoid deficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and craniofacial malformations. To dissect structure-function relationships potentially explaining this phenotypic diversity, we investigated whether specific POR mutations have differential effects on CYP17A1 and CYP21A2. We compared the impact of missense mutations encoding for single amino acid changes in three distinct regions of the POR molecule: 1), Y181D and H628P close to the central electron transfer area, 2) S244C located within the hinge close to the flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide domains of POR, and 3) A287P that is clearly distant from the two other regions. Functional analysis using a yeast microsomal assay with coexpression of human CYP17A1 or CYP21A2 with wild-type or mutant human POR revealed equivalent decreases in CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activities by Y181D, H628P, and S244C. In contrast, A287P had a differential inhibitory effect, with decreased catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for CYP17A1, whereas CYP21A2 retained near normal activity. In vivo analysis of urinary steroid excretion by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 11 patients with POR mutations showed that A287P homozygous patients had the highest corticosterone/cortisol metabolite ratios, further indicative of preferential inhibition of CYP17A1. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the redox regulation of human steroidogenesis. Differential interaction of POR with electron-accepting CYP enzymes may explain the phenotypic variability in POR deficiency, with additional implications for hepatic drug metabolism by POR-dependant CYP enzymes.
Article: Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38495. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Pubertal presentation in seven patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a crucial electron donor to all microsomal P450 cytochrome (CYP) enzymes including 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1), 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) and P450 aromatase. Mutant POR causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia with combined glucocorticoid and sex steroid deficiency. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (ORD) commonly presents neonatally, with disordered sex development in both sexes, skeletal malformations, and glucocorticoid deficiency. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of ORD during puberty. Clinical, biochemical, and genetic assessment of seven ORD patients (five females, two males) presenting during puberty was conducted. Predominant findings in females were incomplete pubertal development (four of five) and large ovarian cysts (five of five) prone to spontaneous rupture, in some only resolving after combined treatment with estrogen/progestin, GnRH superagonists, and glucocorticoids. Pubertal development in the two boys was more mildly affected, with some spontaneous progression. Urinary steroid profiling revealed combined CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 deficiencies indicative of ORD in all patients; all but one failed to mount an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation indicative of adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis of ORD was confirmed by direct sequencing, demonstrating disease-causing POR mutations. Delayed and disordered puberty can be the first sign leading to a diagnosis of ORD. Appropriate testosterone production during puberty in affected boys but manifest primary hypogonadism in girls with ORD may indicate that testicular steroidogenesis is less dependent on POR than adrenal and ovarian steroidogenesis. Ovarian cysts in pubertal girls may be driven not only by high gonadotropins but possibly also by impaired CYP51A1-mediated production of meiosis-activating sterols due to mutant POR.The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 12/2010; 96(3):E453-62. · 6.50 Impact Factor
Article: Genotype-phenotype analysis in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available. The objective of the study was to establish genotype-phenotype correlations in a large PORD cohort. The design of the study was the clinical, biochemical, and genetic assessment including multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 30 PORD patients from 11 countries. We identified 23 P450 oxidoreductase (POR) mutations (14 novel) including an exonic deletion and a partial duplication detected by MLPA. Only 22% of unrelated patients carried homozygous POR mutations. p.A287P was the most common mutation (43% of unrelated alleles); no other hot spot was identified. Urinary steroid profiling showed characteristic PORD metabolomes with variable impairment of 17α-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. Short cosyntropin testing revealed adrenal insufficiency in 89%. DSD was present in 15 of 18 46,XX and seven of 12 46,XY individuals. Homozygosity for p.A287P was invariably associated with 46,XX DSD but normal genitalia in 46,XY individuals. The majority of patients with mild to moderate skeletal malformations, assessed by a novel scoring system, were compound heterozygous for missense mutations, whereas nearly all patients with severe malformations carried a major loss-of-function defect on one of the affected alleles. We report clinical, biochemical, and genetic findings in a large PORD cohort and show that MLPA is a useful addition to POR mutation analysis. Homozygosity for the most frequent mutation in Caucasians, p.A287P, allows for prediction of genital phenotype and moderate malformations. Adrenal insufficiency is frequent, easily overlooked, but readily detected by cosyntropin testing.The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 12/2011; 97(2):E257-67. · 6.50 Impact Factor