Magnetic resonance imaging determination of tumor grade and early response to temozolomide in a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma
ABSTRACT The median survival for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of brain tumor, is less than 1 year. Animal glioma models that are more predictive of therapeutic response in human patients than traditional models and that are genetically and histologically accurate are an unmet need. The nestin tv-a (Ntv-a) genetically engineered mouse spontaneously develops glioma when infected with ALV-A expressing platelet-derived growth factor, resulting in autocrine platelet-derived growth factor signaling.
In the Ntv-a genetically engineered mouse model, T2-weighted and T1-weighted, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images were correlated with histology, glioma grade (high or low), and survival. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was therefore used to enroll mice with high-grade gliomas into a second study that tested efficacy of the current standard of care for glioma, temozolomide (100 mg/kg qdx5 i.p., n=13).
The Ntv-a model generated a heterogeneous group of gliomas, some with high-grade growth rate and histologic characteristics and others with characteristics of lower-grade gliomas. We showed that MRI could be used to predict tumor grade and survival. Temozolomide treatment of high-grade tv-a gliomas provided a 14-day growth delay compared with vehicle controls. Diffusion MRI measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient showed an early decrease in cellularity with temozolomide, similar to that observed in humans.
The use of MRI in the Ntv-a model allows determination of glioma grade and survival prediction, distribution of mice with specific tumor types into preclinical trials, and efficacy determination both by tumor growth and early apparent diffusion coefficient response.
SourceAvailable from: Sandeepa M Eswarappa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The tumour vascular microenvironment supports tumorigenesis not only by supplying oxygen and diffusible nutrients but also by secreting soluble factors that promote tumorigenesis. Here we identify a feedforward mechanism in which endothelial cells (ECs), in response to tumour-derived mediators, release angiocrines driving aberrant vascularization and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) progression through a hypoxia-independent induction of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Phosphorylation of profilin-1 (Pfn-1) at Tyr 129 in ECs induces binding to the tumour suppressor protein von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), and prevents VHL-mediated degradation of prolyl-hydroxylated HIF-1α, culminating in HIF-1α accumulation even in normoxia. Elevated HIF-1α induces expression of multiple angiogenic factors, leading to vascular abnormality and tumour progression. In a genetic model of GBM, mice with an EC-specific defect in Pfn-1 phosphorylation exhibit reduced tumour angiogenesis, normalized vasculature and improved survival. Moreover, EC-specific Pfn-1 phosphorylation is associated with tumour aggressiveness in human glioma. These findings suggest that targeting Pfn-1 phosphorylation may offer a selective strategy for therapeutic intervention of malignant solid tumours.Nature Cell Biology 04/2014; DOI:10.1038/ncb2954 · 20.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nucleic acid-based aptamers have been developed for the specific delivery of diagnostic nanoprobes. Here, we introduce a new class of smart imaging nanoprobe, which is based on hybridization of a magnetic nanocrystal with a specific aptamer for specific detection of the angiogenic vasculature of glioblastoma via magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The magnetic nanocrystal imaging core was synthesized using the thermal decomposition method and enveloped by carboxyl polysorbate 80 for water solubilization and conjugation of the targeting moiety. Subsequently, the surface of the carboxylated magnetic nanocrystal was modified with amine-functionalized aptamers that specifically bind to the vascular growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) that is overexpressed on angiogenic vessels. To assess the targeted imaging potential of the aptamer-conjugated magnetic nanocrystal for VEGFR2 markers, the magnetic properties and MR imaging sensitivity were investigated using the orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model. In in vivo tests, the aptamer-conjugated magnetic nanocrystal effectively targeted VEGFR2 and demonstrated excellent MR imaging sensitivity with no cytotoxicity.Nanoscale Research Letters 09/2013; 8(1):399. DOI:10.1186/1556-276X-8-399 · 2.52 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Non-invasive monitoring of response to treatment of glioblastoma (GB) is nowadays carried out using MRI. MRS and MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) constitute promising tools for this undertaking. A temozolomide (TMZ) protocol was optimized for GL261 GB. Sixty-three mice were studied by MRI/MRS/MRSI. The spectroscopic information was used for the classification of control brain and untreated and responding GB, and validated against post-mortem immunostainings in selected animals. A classification system was developed, based on the MRSI-sampled metabolome of normal brain parenchyma, untreated and responding GB, with a 93% accuracy. Classification of an independent test set yielded a balanced error rate of 6% or less. Classifications correlated well both with tumor volume changes detected by MRI after two TMZ cycles and with the histopathological data: a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the proliferation and mitotic rates and a 4.6-fold increase in the apoptotic rate. A surrogate response biomarker based on the linear combination of 12 spectral features has been found in the MRS/MRSI pattern of treated tumors, allowing the non-invasive classification of growing and responding GL261 GB. The methodology described can be applied to preclinical treatment efficacy studies to test new antitumoral drugs, and begets translational potential for early response detection in clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.NMR in Biomedicine 09/2014; 27(11). DOI:10.1002/nbm.3194 · 3.56 Impact Factor