On the validity and utility of discriminating among impulsivity-like traits
ABSTRACT The ability to make precise distinctions among related personality constructs helps clarify theory and increases the utility of clinical assessment. In three studies, the authors evaluated the validity of distinctions among four impulsivity-like traits: sensation seeking, lack of planning, lack of persistence, and urgency (acting rashly when distressed). Factor analyses indicated that lack of planning and lack of persistence are two distinct facets of one broader trait, whereas urgency and sensation seeking are both very modestly related to each other and to the planning/persistence measures. The authors developed interview assessments of each, and multitrait, multimethod matrix results indicated clear convergent and discriminant validity among the constructs. The distinctions among them were useful: The traits accounted for different aspects of risky behaviors. Sensation seeking appeared to relate to the frequency of engaging in risky behaviors, and urgency appeared to relate to problem levels of involvement in those behaviors.
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ABSTRACT: Playing online games can become problematic and engender adverse consequences. Several psychologi- cal factors have been shown to influence the development and the maintenance of this problematic behavior, including impulsivity traits, motives to play (immersion, achievement, social affiliation), and self-esteem. The aim of the current study is to determine whether reliable subtypes of problematic online gamers can be identified. A sample of 1057 online gamers was recruited. Validated questionnaires were used to measure established psychological risk factors (impulsivity, motives to play, self-esteem) and potential consequences of playing (addiction symptoms, positive and negative affect). Actual in-game behaviors were also monitored. Five reliable clusters of gamers were identified (three problematic and two nonproblematic clusters). Cluster comparison revealed that the psychological factors considered are differentially involved in problematic online gaming. At the theoretical level, the results emphasized that problem online gaming depends on a wide range of psychological factors. At the clinical level, the diversity of psychological profiles shown supports the development of personalized (custom-made) interventions targeting specific psychological mechanisms. Overall, our findings suggest that conceptual- izing the problematic use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games as ‘‘behavioral addiction’’ is too restrictive and might result in the simplification of heterogeneous and multi-determined problematic behaviorsComputers in Human Behavior 02/2015; 43:242-250. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2014.10.055 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Data indicate persistence facilitates suicidal behavior. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is characterized by difficulty persisting while upset. The relationship between NSSI and suicidal behavior thus may hinge upon persistence. Participants were 604 undergraduates (79.5% women; 42.4% African American; 6.1% with 1 + prior suicide attempt). Data were collected online via self-report and analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. As expected, higher levels of grit and perseverance predicted more frequent suicide attempts. Furthermore, grit and perseverance moderated the relationship between NSSI and suicide attempts, which increased in magnitude as individuals reported greater persistence. Findings depict suicidal behavior as a deliberate pursuit of death.Death Studies 01/2015; 39(4). DOI:10.1080/07481187.2014.946629 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study tested a dual-process model of self-control where the combination of high impulsivity (negative urgency - NU), weak reflective / control processes (low executive working memory capacity - E-WMC), and a cognitive load is associated with increased failures to inhibit pre-potent responses on a cued go/no-go task. Using a within-subjects design, a cognitive load with and without negative emotional load was implemented to consider situational factors. Results suggested that: (1) high NU was associated with low E-WMC; (2) low E-WMC significantly predicted more inhibitory control failures across tasks; and (3) there was a significant interaction of E-WMC and NU, revealing those with low E-WMC and high NU had the highest rates of inhibitory control failures on all conditions of the task. In conclusion, results suggest that while E-WMC is a strong independent predictor of inhibitory control, NU provides additional information for vulnerability to problems associated with self-regulation.Personality and Individual Differences 03/2015; 75:210-215. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.033 · 1.86 Impact Factor