The in silico map-based cloning of Pi36, a rice coiled-coil nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat gene that confers race-specific resistance to the blast fungus.
ABSTRACT The indica rice variety Kasalath carries Pi36, a gene that determines resistance to Chinese isolates of rice blast and that has been located to a 17-kb interval on chromosome 8. The genomic sequence of the reference japonica variety Nipponbare was used for an in silico prediction of the resistance (R) gene content of the interval and hence for the identification of candidate gene(s) for Pi36. Three such sequences, which all had both a nucleotide-binding site and a leucine-rich repeat motif, were present. The three candidate genes were amplified from the genomic DNA of a number of varieties by long-range PCR, and the resulting amplicons were inserted into pCAMBIA1300 and/or pYLTAC27 vectors to determine sequence polymorphisms correlated to the resistance phenotype and to perform transgenic complementation tests. Constructs containing each candidate gene were transformed into the blast-susceptible variety Q1063, which allowed the identification of Pi36-3 as the functional gene, with the other two candidates being probable pseudogenes. The Pi36-encoded protein is composed of 1056 amino acids, with a single substitution event (Asp to Ser) at residue 590 associated with the resistant phenotype. Pi36 is a single-copy gene in rice and is more closely related to the barley powdery mildew resistance genes Mla1 and Mla6 than to the rice blast R genes Pita, Pib, Pi9, and Piz-t. An RT-PCR analysis showed that Pi36 is constitutively expressed in Kasalath.
Article: Unique features of the rice blast resistance Pish locus revealed by large scale retrotransposon-tagging.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: R gene-mediated resistance is one of the most effective mechanisms of immunity against pathogens in plants. To date some components that regulate the primary steps of plant immunity have been isolated, however, the molecular dissection of defense signaling downstream of the R proteins remains to be completed. In addition, R genes are known to be highly variable, however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this variability remain obscure. To identify novel factors required for R gene-mediated resistance in rice, we used rice insertional mutant lines, induced by the endogenous retrotransposon Tos17, in a genetic screening involving the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. We inoculated 41,119 mutant lines with the fungus using a high throughput procedure, and identified 86 mutant lines with diminished resistance. A genome analysis revealed that 72 of the 86 lines contained mutations in a gene encoding a nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain-containing (NBS-LRR) protein. A genetic complementation analysis and a pathogenesis assay demonstrated that this NBS-LRR gene encodes Pish, which confers resistance against races of M. oryzae containing avrPish. The other 14 lines have intact copies of the Pish gene, suggesting that they may contain mutations in the signaling components downstream of Pish. The genome analysis indicated that Pish and its neighboring three NBS-LRR genes are high similar to one another and are tandemly located. An in silico analysis of a Tos17 flanking sequence database revealed that this region is a "hot spot" for insertion. Intriguingly, the insertion sites are not distributed evenly among these four NBS-LRR genes, despite their similarity at the sequence and expression levels. In this work we isolated the R gene Pish, and identified several other mutants involved in the signal transduction required for Pish-mediated resistance. These results indicate that our genetic approach is efficient and useful for unveiling novel aspects of defense signaling in rice. Furthermore, our data provide experimental evidence that R gene clusters have the potential to be highly preferred targets for transposable element insertions in plant genomes. Based on this finding, a possible mechanism underlying the high variability of R genes is discussed.BMC Plant Biology 01/2010; 10:175. · 3.45 Impact Factor
Article: Genetic architecture of aluminum tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) determined through genome-wide association analysis and QTL mapping.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a primary limitation to crop productivity on acid soils, and rice has been demonstrated to be significantly more Al tolerant than other cereal crops. However, the mechanisms of rice Al tolerance are largely unknown, and no genes underlying natural variation have been reported. We screened 383 diverse rice accessions, conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study, and conducted QTL mapping in two bi-parental populations using three estimates of Al tolerance based on root growth. Subpopulation structure explained 57% of the phenotypic variation, and the mean Al tolerance in Japonica was twice that of Indica. Forty-eight regions associated with Al tolerance were identified by GWA analysis, most of which were subpopulation-specific. Four of these regions co-localized with a priori candidate genes, and two highly significant regions co-localized with previously identified QTLs. Three regions corresponding to induced Al-sensitive rice mutants (ART1, STAR2, Nrat1) were identified through bi-parental QTL mapping or GWA to be involved in natural variation for Al tolerance. Haplotype analysis around the Nrat1 gene identified susceptible and tolerant haplotypes explaining 40% of the Al tolerance variation within the aus subpopulation, and sequence analysis of Nrat1 identified a trio of non-synonymous mutations predictive of Al sensitivity in our diversity panel. GWA analysis discovered more phenotype-genotype associations and provided higher resolution, but QTL mapping identified critical rare and/or subpopulation-specific alleles not detected by GWA analysis. Mapping using Indica/Japonica populations identified QTLs associated with transgressive variation where alleles from a susceptible aus or indica parent enhanced Al tolerance in a tolerant Japonica background. This work supports the hypothesis that selectively introgressing alleles across subpopulations is an efficient approach for trait enhancement in plant breeding programs and demonstrates the fundamental importance of subpopulation in interpreting and manipulating the genetics of complex traits in rice.PLoS Genetics 08/2011; 7(8):e1002221. · 8.69 Impact Factor