Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer: A syndrome associated with an aggressive form of inherited renal cancer
ABSTRACT Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer is a recently described hereditary cancer syndrome in which affected individuals are at risk for cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, and kidney cancer. Our initial experience revealed the aggressive behavior of these renal tumors, often with early metastasis, despite small primary tumor size. We report the clinical characteristics and urological treatment of patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer associated renal tumors.
A total of 19 patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer associated renal tumors were evaluated. The 11 women and 8 men had a median age at diagnosis of 39 years (range 22 to 67), and a median clinical and radiological followup of 34 months (range 6 to 141). Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer manifestations in patients with renal tumors included cutaneous leiomyomas in 11 of 17 evaluable patients (65%) and uterine leiomyomas in 7 of 7 evaluable females (100%).
Median pathological tumor size was 7.8 cm (range 1.5 to 20). Histological subtypes were consistent with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer renal carcinoma. Four of 7 patients with 2.0 to 6.7 cm T1 tumors had spread to regional lymph nodes or metastases at nephrectomy. Overall 9 of 19 patients (47%) presented with nodal or distant metastases.
Renal tumors in patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome are significantly more aggressive than those in patients with other hereditary renal tumor syndromes. In contrast to other familial renal cancer syndromes, the observation of 3 cm or less renal tumors associated with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer is not recommended. Careful followup of affected and at risk individuals in families is necessary.
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ABSTRACT: Context .- Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective .- To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources .- Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions .- The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high).Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 11/2014; 138(11):1531-41. DOI:10.5858/arpa.2013-0653-RA · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of new forms of treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma over the past two decades has been primarily focused on targeting the VHL/HIF pathway. The recent identification of mutations of chromatin-remodeling genes in clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC), of genomic heterogeneity, and of a Warburg-like metabolic phenotype in advanced disease has had a profound effect on our understanding of the evolution of ccRCC and on potential approaches to personalized therapy. Early approaches to therapy for patients with advanced type I papillary RCC that have centered around the MET/HGF pathway will expand as more genomic information becomes available. Sporadic and familial type II papillary renal cell carcinoma are characterized by enhanced aerobic glycolysis and share an antioxidant response phenotype. In fumarate hydratase-deficient RCC, fumarate-induced succination of KEAP1 activates Nrf2 signaling. CUL3 and Nrf2 mutations as well as an Nrf2 activation phenotype are found in sporadic type II papillary RCC. Therapeutic approaches designed to target the Nrf2 pathway as well as to impair blood flow and glucose delivery in these cancers that are highly dependent on a robust tumor vasculature and on ready availability of glucose for energy production and glycolysis are in development. Clin Cancer Res; 21(1); 10-17. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.Clinical Cancer Research 01/2015; 21(1):10-7. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-2993 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with germline fumarate hydratase (FH) mutation are predisposed to develop aggressive kidney cancer with few treatment options and poor therapeutic outcomes. Activity of the proto-oncogene ABL1 is upregulated in FH-deficient kidney tumors and drives a metabolic and survival signaling network necessary to cope with impaired mitochondrial function and abnormal accumulation of intracellular fumarate. Excess fumarate indirectly stimulates ABL1 activity, while restoration of wild-type FH abrogates both ABL1 activation and the cytotoxicity caused by ABL1 inhibition or knockdown. ABL1 upregulates aerobic glycolysis via the mTOR/HIF1α pathway and neutralizes fumarate-induced proteotoxic stress by promoting nuclear localization of the antioxidant response transcription factor NRF2. Our findings identify ABL1 as a pharmacologically tractable therapeutic target in glycolytically dependent, oxidatively stressed tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cancer Cell 12/2014; 26(6):840-50. DOI:10.1016/j.ccell.2014.10.005 · 23.89 Impact Factor