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Direct Interaction between Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1 and the Papillomavirus E2 Proteins Involved in Activation of Transcription

Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, 50935 Cologne, Germany.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 04/2004; 24(5):2153-68. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.24.5.2153-2168.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP-1) as a protein interacting with the activation domain of the transcriptional activator encoded by papillomaviruses (PVs), the E2 protein. We show that the interaction between E2 and hNAP-1 is direct and not merely mediated by the transcriptional coactivator p300, which is bound by both proteins. Coexpression of hNAP-1 strongly enhances activation by E2, indicating a functional interaction as well. E2 binds to at least two separate domains within hNAP-1, one within the C terminus and an internal domain. The binding of E2 to hNAP-1 is necessary for cooperativity between the factors. Moreover, the N-terminal 91 amino acids are crucial for the transcriptional activity of hNAP-1, since deletion mutants lacking this N-terminal portion fail to cooperate with E2. We provide evidence that hNAP-1, E2, and p300 can form a ternary complex efficient in the activation of transcription. We also show that p53 directly interacts with hNAP-1, indicating that transcriptional activators in addition to PV E2 interact with hNAP-1. These results suggest that the binding of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins to hNAP-1 may be an important step contributing to the activation of transcription.

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    • "Our finding of TSPYL2 regulating the transcription of Grin2a is novel. As there are multiple reports of direct interactions between NAPs and CBP or p30067833, recruitment of TSPYL2 to the various promoters by transcription regulators such as CASK, p300 and CBP may be a general mechanism. In return, TSPYL2 will help to anchor the transcriptional complex to chromatin through its binding to histone. "
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    ABSTRACT: TSPYL2 is an X-linked gene encoding a nucleosome assembly protein. TSPYL2 interacts with calmodulin-associated serine/threonine kinase, which is implicated in X-linked mental retardation. As nucleosome assembly and chromatin remodeling are important in transcriptional regulation and neuronal function, we addressed the importance of TSPYL2 through analyzing Tspyl2 loss-of-function mice. We detected down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits 2A and 2B (GluN2A and GluN2B) in the mutant hippocampus. Evidence from luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation supported that TSPYL2 regulated the expression of Grin2a and Grin2b, the genes encoding GluN2A and GluN2B. We also detected an interaction between TSPYL2 and CBP, indicating that TSPYL2 may activate gene expression through binding CBP. In terms of functional outcome, Tspyl2 loss-of-function impaired long-term potentiation at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Moreover, mutant mice showed a deficit in fear learning and memory. We conclude that TSPYL2 contributes to cognitive variability through regulating the expression of Grin2a and Grin2b.
    Scientific Reports 01/2014; 4:3654. DOI:10.1038/srep03654 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    • "The M2 FLAG antibody was from Sigma-Aldrich, the anti-HA-antibody from Roche, the anti-actin antibody from Santa Cruz, and antibodies against IKKα and IKKβ were from Cell Signaling. Preparation of whole cell extracts and co-immunoprecipitations were conducted as described previously [36]. Dephosphorylation reactions were performed with λ-phosphatase (Santa Cruz) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. "
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF and the NF-ĸB pathway promotes inflammation-mediated tumor progression. The cellular transcription factor ZNF395 has repeatedly been found overexpressed in various human cancers, particularly in response to hypoxia, implying a functional relevance. To understand the biological activity of ZNF395, we identified target genes of ZNF395 through a genome-wide expression screen. Induced ZNF395 expression led to the upregulation of genes known to play a role in cancer as well as a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISG) involved in antiviral responses such as IFIT1/ISG56, IFI44 and IFI16. In cells that lack ZNF395, the IFN-α-mediated stimulation of these factors was impaired, demonstrating that ZNF395 is required for the full induction of these antiviral genes. Transient transfections revealed that ZNF395-mediated activation of the IFIT1/ISG56 promoter depends on the two IFN-stimulated response elements within the promoter and on the DNA-binding domain of ZNF395, a so-called C-clamp. We also show that IĸBα kinase (IKK)-signaling is necessary to allow ZNF395 to activate transcription and simultaneously enhances its proteolytic degradation. Thus, ZNF395 becomes activated at the level of protein modification by IKK. Moreover, we confirm that the expression of ZNF395 is induced by hypoxia. Our results characterize ZNF395 as a novel factor that contributes to the maximal stimulation of a subset of ISGs. This transcriptional activity depends on IKK signaling further supporting a role of ZNF395 in the innate immune response. Given these results it is possible that under hypoxic conditions, elevated levels of ZNF395 may support inflammation and cancer progression by activating the target genes involved in the innate immune response and cancer.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74911. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074911 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "NAP1L1 is primarily involved in replication-coupled nucleosome assembly by mediating the incorporation of histones H2A-H2B dimers in nucleosomes. Its direct binding to E2 from genotypes 5, 8 and 18 has been shown to enhance their transcriptional activation capacities [34], though this interaction might primarily impact on the replication activating functions of E2. On the other hand, the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex was recently shown to enhance HPV18 E2-dependant transcription through direct binding of the core component hSNF5 to E2 [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Over 100 genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified as being responsible for unapparent infections or for lesions ranging from benign skin or genital warts to cancer. The pathogenesis of HPV results from complex relationships between viral and host factors, driven in particular by the interplay between the host proteome and the early viral proteins. The E2 protein regulates the transcription, the replication as well as the mitotic segregation of the viral genome through the recruitment of host cell factors to the HPV regulatory region. It is thereby a pivotal factor for the productive viral life cycle and for viral persistence, a major risk factor for cancer development. In addition, the E2 proteins have been shown to engage numerous interactions through which they play important roles in modulating the host cell. Such E2 activities are probably contributing to create cell conditions appropriate for the successive stages of the viral life cycle, and some of these activities have been demonstrated only for the oncogenic high-risk HPV. The recent mapping of E2-host protein-protein interactions with 12 genotypes representative of HPV diversity has shed some light on the large complexity of the host cell hijacking and on its diversity according to viral genotypes. This article reviews the functions of E2 as they emerge from the E2/host proteome interplay, taking into account the large-scale comparative interactomic study.
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Gertrud Steger