2-Hydroxychromene-2-carboxylic acid isomerase: a kappa class glutathione transferase from Pseudomonas putida.
ABSTRACT The enzyme 2-hydroxychromene-2-carboxylic acid (HCCA) isomerase catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-dependent interconversion (Keq = 1.5) of HCCA and trans-o-hydroxybenzylidene pyruvic acid (tHBPA) in the naphthalene catabolic pathway of Pseudomonas putida. The dimeric protein binds one molecule of GSH very tightly (Kd approximately 5 nM) and a second molecule of GSH with much lower affinity (Kd approximately 2 to 11 microM). The enzyme is unstable in the absence of GSH. The turnover number in the forward direction (47 s(-1) at 25 degrees C) greatly exceeds off rates for GSH (koff approximately 10(-3) to 10(-2) s(-1) at 10 degrees C), suggesting that GSH acts as a tightly bound cofactor in the reaction. The crystal structure of the enzyme at 1.7 A resolution reveals that the isomerase is closely related to class kappa GSH transferases. Diffraction quality crystals could only be obtained in the presence of GSH and HCCA/tHBPA. Clear electron density is seen for GSH. Electron density for the organic substrates is located near the GSH and is best modeled to include both HCCA and tHBPA at occupancies of 0.5 for each. Although there is no electron density connecting the sulfur of GSH to the organic substrates, the sulfur is located very close (2.78 A) to C7 of HCCA. Taken together, the results suggest that the isomerization reaction involves a short-lived covalent adduct between the sulfur of GSH and C7 of the substrate.
Article: The Enzyme Function Initiative.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts.Biochemistry 11/2011; 50(46):9950-62. · 3.42 Impact Factor